Och, Christoph Tillman, and Hermann Ney. Improved alignment models for statistical machine translation. In Proc. This paper describes the design, development, and analysis of a MOOC entitled "Approaches to Machine Translation : Rule-based, statistical and hybrid", and provides lessons learned and conclusions to be taken into account in the future. The course was developed within the Canvas platform, used by recognized European universities.
Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators , which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation CAT and machine translation MT.
Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation , it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators , which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation.
Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity. The test was carried out on translations from English to French dealing with food science and technology. Machine translations were compared to manual translations of the same texts. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan. The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation MT in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area.
The term ' machine translation ' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy.
MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process.
There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems. Translation -coupling systems. Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation -coupling cassette. The translation -coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element.
Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product.
The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation -coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation -coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation -coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation -coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation -coupling cassettes. Kadhim, Kais A. Nowadays, online Machine Translation MT is used widely with translation software, such as Google and Babylon, being easily available and downloadable.
This study aims to test the translation quality of these two machine systems in translating Arabic news headlines into English. Translation Environment Tools make translators ' work easier by providing them with term lists, translation memories and machine translation output.
Ideally, such tools automatically predict whether it is more effortful to post-edit than to translate from scratch, and determine whether or not to provide translators with machine translation output. Current machine translation quality estimation systems heavily rely on automatic metrics, even though they do not accurately capture actual post-editing effort. In addition, these systems do not take translator experience into account, even though novices' translation processes are different from those of professional translators.
In this paper, we report on the impact of machine translation errors on various types of post-editing effort indicators, for professional translators as well as student translators. We compare the impact of MT quality on a product effort indicator HTER with that on various process effort indicators.
The translation and post-editing process of student translators and professional translators was logged with a combination of keystroke logging and eye-tracking, and the MT output was analyzed with a fine-grained translation quality assessment approach.
We find that most post-editing effort indicators product as well as process are influenced by machine translation quality, but that different error types affect different post-editing effort indicators, confirming that a more fine-grained MT quality analysis is needed to correctly estimate actual post-editing effort. Coherence, meaning shifts, and structural issues are shown to be good indicators of post-editing effort. The additional impact of experience on these interactions between MT quality and post-editing effort is smaller than expected.
There are many websites today that offer free machine translations and although beginning students of German are not always proficient enough to judge the quality of these translations or to fully understand certain translation results, they use these services nonetheless for their assignments.
The problem for the educator is to distinguish…. Machine vs. Based on this, German translations t1, t2, and t3 were generated. A German and an Austrian physician rated the translations for linguistic correctness and content fidelity. Kappa for inter-rater reliability was 0. Average ratings of linguistic correctness did not differ significantly between human translation scenarios. Content fidelity was rated slightly better for student translators compared to professional translators.
Comparing machine to human translation , the linguistic correctness differed about 0. The results demonstrate that low-cost translation solutions of medical terms may produce surprisingly good results. Although we would not recommend low-cost translation for producing standardized preferred terms, this approach can be useful for creating additional language-specific entry terms. This may serve several important use cases.
We also recommend testing this method to bootstrap a crowdsourcing process, by which term translations are gathered, improved, maintained, and rated by the user community. The few studies that deal with machine translation MT as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners.
Yet, freely available MT engines i. Google Translate and MT-related web initiatives i. Translation is one of the needs of global society for communicating thoughts and ideas of one country with other country. Translation is the process of interpretation of text meaning and subsequent production of equivalent text, also called as communicating same meaning message in another language. In this paper we gave detail information on how to convert source language text in to target language text using Transfer Based Approach for machine translation.
Here we implemented English to Sanskrit machine translator using transfer based approach. English is global language used for business and communication but large amount of population in India is not using and understand the English. Sanskrit is ancient language of India most of the languages in India are derived from Sanskrit. Sanskrit can be act as an intermediate language for multilingual translation.
Generalised access to the Internet and globalisation has led to increased demand for translation services and a resurgence in the use of machine translation MT systems. MT post-editing or the correction of MT output to an acceptable standard is known to be one of the ways to face the huge demand on multilingual communication.
Given that the use…. Analysis of the whole mitochondrial genome: translation of the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine system to the diagnostic bench? Next-generation sequencing NGS , an innovative sequencing technology that enables the successful analysis of numerous gene sequences in a massive parallel sequencing approach, has revolutionized the field of molecular biology.
Although NGS was introduced in a rather recent past, the technology has already demonstrated its potential and effectiveness in many research projects, and is now on the verge of being introduced into the diagnostic setting of routine laboratories to delineate the molecular basis of genetic disease in undiagnosed patient samples.
This Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine platform is a high-throughput sequencer with a fast turnaround time and reasonable running costs. We challenged the chemistry and technology with the analysis and processing of a mutational spectrum composed of samples with single-nucleotide substitutions, indels insertions and deletions and large single or multiple deletions, occasionally in heteroplasmy.
The output data were compared with previously obtained conventional dideoxy sequencing results and the mitochondrial revised Cambridge Reference Sequence rCRS. We were able to identify the majority of all nucleotide alterations, but three false-negative results were also encountered in the data set. At the same time, the poor performance of the PGM instrument in regions associated with homopolymeric stretches generated many false-positive miscalls demanding additional manual curation of the data.
Machine -Assisted Translation in West Germany. German literary language encompasses about , words, English about ,, and the vocabulary of a person of average education is about Terminology Recording and Evaluation Method was developed in the language service of the Siemens company in Munich as an aid for in-house application. A translator and simulator for the Burroughs D machine. In addition to simulation and translation , the two programs also offer several debugging tools, such as: a full set of diagnostic error messages, register dumps, simulated memory dumps, traces on instructions and groups of instructions, and breakpoints.
Amancio, Diego R. Costa, Luciano; Oliveira, Osvaldo N. Complex networks have been increasingly used in text analysis, including in connection with natural language processing tools, as important text features appear to be captured by the topology and dynamics of the networks. Following previous works that apply complex networks concepts to text quality measurement, summary evaluation, and author characterization, we now focus on machine translation MT.
In this paper we assess the possible representation of texts as complex networks to evaluate cross-linguistic issues inherent in manual and machine translation. We show that different quality translations generated by MT tools can be distinguished from their manual counterparts by means of metrics such as in- ID and out-degrees OD , clustering coefficient CC , and shortest paths SP. For instance, we demonstrate that the average OD in networks of automatic translations consistently exceeds the values obtained for manual ones, and that the CC values of source texts are not preserved for manual translations , but are for good automatic translations.
This probably reflects the text rearrangements humans perform during manual translation. We envisage that such findings could lead to better MT tools and automatic evaluation metrics. Machine Translation : The Alternative for the 21st Century? Outlines a scenario for the future of Teaching English as a Second or Other Languages that has seldom, if ever been considered in academic discussion: that advances in and availability of quality machine translation could mitigate the need for English language learning.
Sketch of a proaram. This outline of work xtfiich will. Chinese and Vietnamese have the same isolated language; that is, the words are not delimited by spaces. In machine translation , word segmentation is often done first when translating from Chinese or Vietnamese into different languages typically English and vice versa.
However, it is a matter for consideration that words may or may not be segmented when translating between two languages in which spaces are not used between words, such as Chinese and Vietnamese. Since Chinese-Vietnamese is a low-resource language pair, the sparse data problem is evident in the translation system of this language pair. Therefore, while translating , whether it should be segmented or not becomes more important. In this paper, we propose a new method for translating Chinese to Vietnamese based on a combination of the advantages of character level and word level translation.
In addition, a hybrid approach that combines statistics and rules is used to translate on the word level. And at the character level, a statistical translation is used. The experimental results showed that our method improved the performance of machine translation over that of character or word level translation.
Modeling workflow to design machine translation applications for public health practice. Objective Provide a detailed understanding of the information workflow processes related to translating health promotion materials for limited English proficiency individuals in order to inform the design of context-driven machine translation MT tools for public health PH.
Materials and Methods We applied a cognitive work analysis framework to investigate the translation information workflow processes of two large health departments in Washington State. Researchers conducted interviews, performed a task analysis, and validated results with PH professionals to model translation workflow and identify functional requirements for a translation system for PH.
Results The study resulted in a detailed description of work related to translation of PH materials, an information workflow diagram, and a description of attitudes towards MT technology. We identified a number of themes that hold design implications for incorporating MT in PH translation practice. A PH translation tool prototype was designed based on these findings. Discussion This study underscores the importance of understanding the work context and information workflow for which systems will be designed.
Based on themes and translation information workflow processes, we identified key design guidelines for incorporating MT into PH translation work. Primary amongst these is that MT should be followed by human review for translations to be of high quality and for the technology to be adopted into practice.
Counclusion The time and costs of creating multilingual health promotion materials are barriers to translation. PH personnel were interested in MT's potential to improve access to low-cost translated PH materials, but expressed concerns about ensuring quality. We outline design considerations and a potential machine translation tool to best fit MT systems into PH practice.
Local health department translation processes: potential of machine translation technologies to help meet needs. Limited English proficiency LEP , defined as a limited ability to read, speak, write, or understand English, is associated with health disparities. Despite federal and state requirements to translate health information, the vast majority of health materials are solely available in English.
This project investigates barriers to translation of health information and explores new technologies to improve access to multilingual public health materials. We surveyed all 77 local health departments LHDs in the Northwest about translation needs, practices, barriers and attitudes towards machine translation MT. We received 67 responses from 45 LHDs. Cost and access to qualified translators are principle barriers to producing multilingual materials. Many respondents expressed concerns about the accuracy of MT.
Overall, respondents were positive about its potential use, if low costs and quality could be assured. Center used MT tools to translate extraordinary numbers of Russian technical documents. Granted, this number is tempered by the rules of a specific language that would disallow specific word orderings, or mandate particular word Biomimetic machine vision system.
Real-time application of digital imaging for use in machine vision systems has proven to be prohibitive when used within control systems that employ low-power single processors without compromising the scope of vision or resolution of captured images.
Development of a real-time machine analog vision system is the focus of research taking place at the University of Wyoming. This new vision system is based upon the biological vision system of the common house fly. Development of a single sensor is accomplished, representing a single facet of the fly's eye. This new sensor is then incorporated into an array of sensors capable of detecting objects and tracking motion in 2-D space.
This system "preprocesses" incoming image data resulting in minimal data processing to determine the location of a target object. Due to the nature of the sensors in the array, hyperacuity is achieved thereby eliminating resolutions issues found in digital vision systems.
In this paper, we will discuss the biological traits of the fly eye and the specific traits that led to the development of this machine vision system. We will also discuss the process of developing an analog based sensor that mimics the characteristics of interest in the biological vision system. This paper will conclude with a discussion of how an array of these sensors can be applied toward solving real-world machine vision issues.
Cybernetic anthropomorphic machine systems. Functional descriptions are provided for a number of cybernetic man machine systems that augment the capacity of normal human beings in the areas of strength, reach or physical size, and environmental interaction, and that are also applicable to aiding the neurologically handicapped.
Teleoperators, computer control, exoskeletal devices, quadruped vehicles, space maintenance systems , and communications equipment are considered. This multi-mode feature affords the user a library-like searching tool by giving him access to a dictionary, lexicon, thesaurus, synonym table,…. This research work aimed at making use of Machine Translation to help students avoid some syntactic, semantic and pragmatic common errors in translation from English into Arabic.
Participants were a hundred and five freshmen who studied the " Translation Common Errors Remedial Program" prepared by the researchers. A testing kit that…. Application of statistical machine translation to public health information: a feasibility study. Accurate, understandable public health information is important for ensuring the health of the nation. The large portion of the US population with Limited English Proficiency is best served by translations of public-health information into other languages.
However, a large number of health departments and primary care clinics face significant barriers to fulfilling federal mandates to provide multilingual materials to Limited English Proficiency individuals. This article presents a pilot study on the feasibility of using freely available statistical machine translation technology to translate health promotion materials.
The authors gathered health-promotion materials in English from local and national public-health websites. Spanish versions were created by translating the documents using a freely available machine-translation website. Translations were rated for adequacy and fluency, analyzed for errors, manually corrected by a human posteditor, and compared with exclusively manual translations. Machine translation plus postediting took min per document, compared to the reported days or even weeks for the standard translation process.
A blind comparison of machine -assisted and human translations of six documents revealed overall equivalency between machine-translated and manually translated materials. The analysis of translation errors indicated that the most important errors were word-sense errors.
The results indicate that machine translation plus postediting may be an effective method of producing multilingual health materials with equivalent quality but lower cost compared to manual translations. Objective Accurate, understandable public health information is important for ensuring the health of the nation. Design The authors gathered health-promotion materials in English from local and national public-health websites.
Conclusion The results indicate that machine translation plus postediting may be an effective method of producing multilingual health materials with equivalent quality but lower cost compared to manual translations. Classifying publications from the clinical and translational science award program along the translational research spectrum: a machine learning approach. The goal of the CTSA program is to accelerate the translation of discoveries from the bench to the bedside and into communities.
Different classification systems have been used to capture the spectrum of basic to clinical to population health research, with substantial differences in the number of categories and their definitions. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the CTSA program and of translational research in general is hampered by the lack of rigor in these definitions and their application. This study adds rigor to the classification process by creating a checklist to evaluate publications across the translational spectrum and operationalizes these classifications by building machine learning-based text classifiers to categorize these publications.
Based on collaboratively developed definitions, we created a detailed checklist for categories along the translational spectrum from T0 to T4. We applied the checklist to CTSA-linked publications to construct a set of coded publications for use in training machine learning-based text classifiers to classify publications within these categories. We then compared classifier performance across different algorithms and feature sets and applied the classifiers to all publications in PubMed indexed to CTSA grants.
To validate the algorithm, we manually classified the articles with the top scores from each classifier. The definitions and checklist facilitated classification and resulted in good inter-rater reliability for coding publications for the training set. Very good performance was achieved for the classifiers as represented by the area under the receiver operating. NASA's online machine aided indexing system. This system is comprised of a text processor that is based on the computational, non-syntactic analysis of input text, and an extensive 'knowledge base' that serves to recognize and translate text-extracted concepts.
The structure and function of the various NLD system components are described in detail. Methods used for the development of the knowledge base are discussed. Particular attention is given to a statistically-based text analysis program that provides the knowledge base developer with a list of concept-specific phrases extracted from large textual corpora. Production and quality benefits resulting from the integration of machine aided indexing at CASI are discussed along with a number of secondary applications of NLD-derived systems including on-line spell checking and machine aided lexicography.
Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain. We investigate machine translation MT of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval IR in the medical domain.
The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR. Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants.
The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English.
The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs. The baseline BLEU scores increased from In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English.
Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries. Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of. Purpose: This paper seeks to examine the further integration of machine translation technologies with cross language information access in providing web users the capabilities of accessing information beyond language barriers.
Machine translation and cross language information access are related technologies, and yet they have their own unique…. Man Machine Systems in Education. This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education.
Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…. Background Chinese is the second most common language spoken by limited English proficiency individuals in the United States, yet there are few public health materials available in Chinese. Previous studies have indicated that use of machine translation plus postediting by bilingual translators generated quality translations in a lower time and at a lower cost than human translations.
Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using machine translation MT tools eg, Google Translate followed by human postediting PE to produce quality Chinese translations of public health materials. Methods From state and national public health websites, we collected 60 health promotion documents that had been translated from English to Chinese through human translation.
The English version of the documents were then translated to Chinese using Google Translate. The MTs were analyzed for translation errors. A subset of the MT documents was postedited by native Chinese speakers with health backgrounds. Postediting time was measured.
Postedited versions were then blindly compared against human translations by bilingual native Chinese quality raters. Posteditors corrected the MTs at a rate of approximately 41 characters per minute. Conclusions Our results revealed problems with using MT tools plus human postediting for translating public health materials from English to Chinese. Modeling and prediction of human word search behavior in interactive machine translation.
As a kind of computer aided translation method, Interactive Machine Translation technology reduced manual translation repetitive and mechanical operation through a variety of methods, so as to get the translation efficiency, and played an important role in the practical application of the translation work. In this paper, we regarded the behavior of users' frequently searching for words in the translation process as the research object, and transformed the behavior to the translation selection problem under the current translation.
The paper presented a prediction model, which is a comprehensive utilization of alignment model, translation model and language model of the searching words behavior. It achieved a highly accurate prediction of searching words behavior, and reduced the switching of mouse and keyboard operations in the users' translation process. Machine Translation MT is now ubiquitous in discussions of translation.
The roots of this phenomenon - first publicly unveiled in the so-called 'Georgetown-IBM Experiment' on 9 January - displayed not only the technological utopianism still associated with dreams of a universal computer translator , but was deeply enmeshed in the political pressures of the Cold War and a dominating conception of scientific writing as both the goal of machine translation as well as its method.
Machine translation was created, in part, as a solution to a perceived crisis sparked by the massive expansion of Soviet science. Scientific prose was also perceived as linguistically simpler, and so served as the model for how to turn a language into a series of algorithms.
This paper follows the rise of the Georgetown program - the largest single program in the world - from to the as it turns out, temporary collapse of MT in Slide system for machine tools. The present invention relates to a machine tool which permits the machining of nonaxisymmetric surfaces on a workpiece while rotating the workpiece about a central axis of rotation.
The machine tool comprises a conventional two-slide system X-Y with one of these slides being provided with a relatively short travel high-speed auxiliary slide which carries the material-removing tool. The auxiliary slide is synchronized with the spindle speed and the position of the other two slides and provides a high-speed reciprocating motion required for the displacement of the cutting tool for generating a nonaxisymmetric surface at a selected location on the workpiece.
The petition for language translation has strikingly augmented recently due to cross-cultural communication and exchange of information. In order to communicate well, text should be translated correctly and completely in each field such as legal documents, technical texts, scientific texts, publicity leaflets, and instructional materials.
In this…. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability. Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue.
We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan.
They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations.
Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis. This quantitative-qualitative analytical research aimed at investigating the effect of integrating project-based teaching methodology into teaching machine translation on students' performance.
Artificial Intelligence or AI as it is popularly known and its corollary, Machine Translation MT have long engaged scientists, thinkers and linguists alike in the twenty first century. However, the wider question that lies in the relation between technology and translation is, What does technology do to language? This is an important question in…. Describes DLT, the multilingual machine translation system that uses Esperanto as an intermediate language in which substantial portions of the translation subprocesses are carried out.
The criteria for choosing an intermediate language and the reasons for preferring Esperanto over other languages are explained. On 10 February , A. This sight was in service on board the Enola Gay when it dropped the first atomic bomb on Hiroshima.
Through this public presentation, Buehler forever linked his company to the Norden Bombsight, the…. These diviaions can be characterized at. The U. Only English language information retrieval is currently supported.
Given the growing number of Spanish speakers in the U. This study compares the effectiveness of two common cross-language information retrieval methods using machine translation , query translation versus document translation , using a subset of genuine user queries from ClinicalTrials. Preliminary results conducted with the ClinicalTrials. We discuss possible reasons for this result and we conclude with suggestions for future work. This article addresses a pervasive problem of concern to teachers of many foreign languages: the use of Web-Based Machine Translation WBMT by students who do not understand the complexities of this relatively new tool.
Although networked technologies have greatly increased access to many language and communication tools, WBMT is still…. Coupled isothermal polynucleotide amplification and translation system. A cell-free system for polynucleotide amplification and translation is disclosed.
Also disclosed are methods for using the system and a composition which allows the various components of the system to function under a common set of reaction conditions. Mobile machine hazardous working zone warning system. A warning system is provided for a mobile working machine to alert an individual of a potentially dangerous condition in the event the individual strays into a hazardous working zone of the machine.
The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation thereof. A receiver, carried by the individual and activated by the magnetic field, provides an alarm signal to alert the individual when he enters the hazardous working zone of the machine.
The warning system includes a transmitter mounted on the machine and operable to generate a uniform magnetic field projecting beyond an outer periphery of the machine in defining a hazardous working zone around the machine during operation. Machine vision systems using machine learning for industrial product inspection. Machine vision inspection requires efficient processing time and accurate results.
During the OLI stage, the inspection system uses the knowledge learnt by the LIF component to inspect the visual features of products. In both systems , the LIF component also incorporates interactive learning to make the inspection system more powerful and efficient. The VFD system has been deployed successfully in three different manufacturing companies and the PCB inspection system is the process of being deployed in a manufacturing plant.
Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing NLP , consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation MT due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity.
In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation SFBMT , we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation.
In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system , we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus. Keefer, B. Leland Haworth, commissioned a research team to. Translation : Aids, Robots, and Automation. Examines electronic aids to translation both as ways to automate it and as an approach to solve problems resulting from shortage of qualified translators.
Background: The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation MT offers a possible solution to this problem.
Aim: To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. Method: In total, randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier.
Results: Of the participants, More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT.
Conclusion: Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required. Embedded control system for computerized franking machine. This paper presents a novel control system for franking machine.
A methodology for operating a franking machine using the functional controls consisting of connection, configuration and franking electromechanical drive is studied. A set of enabling technologies to synthesize postage management software architectures driven microprocessor-based embedded systems is proposed. The cryptographic algorithm that calculates mail items is analyzed to enhance the postal indicia accountability and security.
The study indicated that the franking machine is reliability, performance and flexibility in printing mail items. Most educators are aware that some students utilize web-based machine translators for foreign language assignments, however, little research has been done to determine how and why students utilize these programs, or what the implications are for language learning and teaching.
In this mixed-methods study we utilized surveys, a translation task,…. An intelligent CNC machine control system architecture. Intelligent, agile manufacturing relies on automated programming of digitally controlled processes. Currently, processes such as Computer Numerically Controlled CNC machining are difficult to automate because of highly restrictive controllers and poor software environments. It is also difficult to utilize sensors and process models for adaptive control, or to integrate machining processes with other tasks within a factory floor setting.
Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator. In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system MedSLT intended for safety-critical applications.
The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains headache, chest pain and abdominal pain , using a vocabulary of about words per sub-domain. The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other.
Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use. Discriminative feature-rich models for syntax-based machine translation.
This report gives a brief overview of Kevin Gimpel's research. However, the elicitation and modeling of user preferences is an important prerequisite for research on user adaptation and customization of MT engines. We apply our approach to the analysis of MT output from translating public health documents from English into Spanish. Our results indicate that word order errors are clearly the most dispreferred error type, followed by word sense, morphological, and function word errors.
The conjoint analysis-based model is able to predict user preferences more accurately than a baseline model that chooses the translation with the fewest errors overall. Additionally we analyze the effect of using a crowd-sourced respondent population versus a sample of domain experts and observe that main preference effects are remarkably stable across the two samples. Cooling system for rotating machine. An electrical machine comprising a rotor is presented.
The electrical machine includes the rotor disposed on a rotatable shaft and defining a plurality of radial protrusions extending from the shaft up to a periphery of the rotor. The radial protrusions having cavities define a fluid path. A stationary shaft is disposed concentrically within the rotatable shaft wherein an annular space is formed between the stationary and rotatable shaft.
A plurality of magnetic segments is disposed on the radial protrusions and the fluid path from within the stationary shaft into the annular space and extending through the cavities within the radial protrusions. SFBMT uses noun determination rules to extract nouns and a bilingual dictionary to obtain correspondence of the extracted nouns between the source and the target languages.
The evaluation results shows that the precision of this method for Japanese sentences is Gives machinist "equation plotter" feature, which plots equations that define movements and converts equations to milling- machine -controlling program moving cutter along defined path. System includes tool-manager software handling up to 25 tools and automatically adjusts to account for each tool. The Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium CDISC is a global non-profit standards development organization that creates consensus-based standards for clinical and translational research.
While these documents are human readable, they are not amenable to ready use by electronic systems. Automatic translation among spoken languages. The Machine Aided Voice Translation MAVT system was developed in response to the shortage of experienced military field interrogators with both foreign language proficiency and interrogation skills. Combining speech recognition, machine translation , and speech generation technologies, the MAVT accepts an interrogator's spoken English question and translates it into spoken Spanish.
The spoken Spanish response of the potential informant can then be translated into spoken English. Potential military and civilian applications for automatic spoken language translation technology are discussed in this paper. High slot utilization systems for electric machines. Two new High Slot Utilization HSU Systems for electric machines enable the use of form wound coils that have the highest fill factor and the best use of magnetic materials.
In addition, the first HSU system allows the coil layers to be moved inside the slots for the assembly purpose. The second system uses the slided-in teeth instead of the plugged-in teeth. The power density of the electric machine that uses either system can reach its highest limit.
The Spirex coil winding machine is used at Fermilab to build coils for superconducting magnets. Recently this ma-chine was equipped with a new control system , which al-lows operation from both a computer and a portable remote control unit. This control system is distributed between three layers, implemented on a PC, real-time target, and FPGA, providing respectively HMI, operational logic and direct controls.
The system controls motion of all mechan-ical components and regulates the cable tension. Safety is ensured by a failsafe, redundant system. As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system , a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone.
The underlying principles and the design process are…. System software for the finite element machine. The Finite Element Machine is an experimental parallel computer developed at Langley Research Center to investigate the application of concurrent processing to structural engineering analysis.
This report describes system -level software which has been developed to facilitate use of the machine by applications researchers. Based on experience using the system , the hardware architecture and software design are critiqued, and areas for further work are suggested. Applications of Database Machines in Library Systems. Characteristics and advantages of database machines are summarized and their applications to library functions are described.
The ability to attach multiple hosts to the same database and flexibility in choosing operating and database management systems for different functions without loss of access to common database are noted. Feranchak, R. The Mystro system : A comprehensive translator toolkit. Mystro is a system that facilities the construction of compilers, assemblers, code generators, query interpretors, and similar programs.
It provides features to encourage the use of iterative enhancement. There are other programs available that can be used in building translators. These typically build parser tables, usually supply the source of a parser and parts of a lexical analyzer, but provide little or no aid for code generation. In general, only the front end of the compiler is addressed. Mystro, on the other hand, emphasizes tools for both ends of a compiler. Organic bioelectronics for electronic-to-chemical translation in modulation of neuronal signaling and machine -to-brain interfacing.
A major challenge when creating interfaces for the nervous system is to translate between the signal carriers of the nervous system ions and neurotransmitters and those of conventional electronics electrons. Organic conjugated polymers represent a unique class of materials that utilizes both electrons and ions as charge carriers.
Based on these materials, we have established a series of novel communication interfaces between electronic components and biological systems. The OEIP translates electronic signals into electrophoretic migration of ions and neurotransmitters. Finally, we demonstrate the use of the OEIP in a new " machine -to-brain" interface by modulating brainstem responses in vivo.
This review highlights the potential of communication interfaces based on conjugated polymers in generating complex, high-resolution, signal patterns to control cell physiology. We foresee widespread applications for these devices in biomedical research and in future medical devices within multiple therapeutic areas. All rights reserved. The requirements of CEC POP machine protection system are meant to prevent damage to a vacuum chamber by a missteered electron beam.
From this information the requirements of the protection system can be calculated by factoring the information into equations to find beam densities and temperature excursions. Dual axis translation apparatus and system for translating an optical beam and related method. A dual axis translation device and system in accordance with this invention, for translating an optical beam along both an x-axis and a y-axis which are perpendicular to one another, has a beam directing means acting on said optical beam for directing the beam along a particular path transverse to said x and y axes.
An arrangement supporting said beam directing means for movement in the x and y direction within a given plane is provided. The arrangement includes a first means for translating said beam directing means along the x-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said x-axis.
The arrangement comprises a second means for translating said beam directing means along the y-axis in said given plane in order to translate the beam along said y-axis. Context Most local public health departments serve limited English proficiency groups but lack sufficient resources to translate the health promotion materials that they produce into different languages. Machine translation MT with human postediting could fill this gap and work toward decreasing health disparities among non—English speakers.
Objectives 1 To identify the time and costs associated with human translation HT of public health documents, 2 determine the time necessary for human postediting of MT, and 3 compare the quality of postedited MT and HT. The public health professionals involved were queried about the workflow, costs, and time for HT of 11 English public health documents over a month period. Three recently translated documents of similar size and topic were then machine translated , the time for human postediting was recorded, and a blind quality analysis was performed.
Participants Public health professionals. Results Human translation via local health department methods took 17 hours to 6 days. While HT postediting words per minute ranged from 1. A quality comparison by bilingual public health professionals showed that MT and HT were equivalently preferred.
Conclusions MT with human postediting can reduce the time and costs of translating public health materials while maintaining quality similar to HT. A bibliographical survey was performed to provide an overview on the usefulness of online translators for applicability using written and spoken languages. As we have to consider this question to be further surely answered, this study could present some advantages and disadvantages in using translating online devices.
Considering Medicine and Health Sciences as expressive into the human scientific knowledge to be spread worldwidely; technological devices available on communication should be used to overcome some language barriers either written or spoken, but with some caution depending on the context of their applicability. Language policy, translation and language development in Zimbabwe. The language policy is usually inferred from the language practices that characterise various spheres of life.
This article attempts to show how the language policy, which primarily influences text production in the country, has nurtured translation practice. The dominating role of English sees many texts, particularly technical Full Text Available Several scholars have argued that translation is not a useful tool when acquiring a second or foreign language ; since it provides a simplistic one-to-one relationship between the native and the foreign language , it can cause interference between them, and it is an artificial exercise that has nothing to do in a communicative approach to language teaching.
Recent studies, however, show that, far from being useless, translation can be a great aid to foreign language learning. Translation -coupling systems. Disclosed are systems and methods for coupling translation of a target gene to a detectable response gene. A version of the invention includes a translation -coupling cassette. The translation -coupling cassette includes a target gene, a response gene, a response-gene translation control element, and a secondary structure-forming sequence that reversibly forms a secondary structure masking the response-gene translation control element.
Masking of the response-gene translation control element inhibits translation of the response gene. Full translation of the target gene results in unfolding of the secondary structure and consequent translation of the response gene. Translation of the target gene is determined by detecting presence of the response-gene protein product.
The invention further includes RNA transcripts of the translation -coupling cassettes, vectors comprising the translation -coupling cassettes, hosts comprising the translation -coupling cassettes, methods of using the translation -coupling cassettes, and gene products produced with the translation -coupling cassettes. ORSER is collection of image processing programs for analyzing remotely sensed data.
The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language The translation of biblical texts into South African Sign Language. Native signers were used as translators with the assistance of hearing specialists in the fields of religion and translation studies. HOW TO Timing of translation in cross- language qualitative research. Although there is increased understanding of language barriers in cross- language studies, the point at which language transformation processes are applied in research is inconsistently reported, or treated as a minor issue.
Differences in translation timeframes raise methodological issues related to the material to be translated , as well as for the process of data analysis and interpretation. In this article we address methodological issues related to the timing of translation from Portuguese to English in two international cross- language collaborative research studies involving researchers from Brazil, Canada, and the United States. One study entailed late-phase translation of a research report, whereas the other study involved early phase translation of interview data.
The timing of translation in interaction with the object of translation should be considered, in addition to the language , cultural, subject matter, and methodological competencies of research team members. Health related quality of life measure in systemic pediatric rheumatic diseases and its translation to different languages.
There is no health-related quality of life HRQOL scale available specifically for children with less common rheumatic diseases. These diseases share several It is suitable for use across different age groups and literacy levels. This article addresses test translation review in international test comparisons. We investigated the applicability of the theory of test translation error--a theory of the multidimensionality and inevitability of test translation error--across source language -target language combinations in the translation of PISA Programme of International….
This paper argues that Dev Virahsawmy, an author who manipulates literary translation for the purposes of linguistic prestige formation and re-negotiation, is a critical language -policy practitioner, as his work fills an important gap in language planning scholarship. A micro-analysis of the translation of a Shakespearean sonnet into Mauritian….
This guidebook for teachers documents the "Harry Potter in Translation " project undertaken at the Language Research Centre at the University of Calgary. The guide also offers 5 sample lesson plans for teachers of grades three to twelve for teaching world languages using the Harry Potter books in translation to engage students.
Literary translation into indigenous languages in Nigeria and This study makes out a case for the thorny problem of literary translation into Nigeria's indigenous languages and its role in national development. In this paper, we outline the way forward given the fact that literary translation into Nigerian languages had gone through a sticky patch.
Federal, State and Local governments in In order to prevent the latter approach from becoming a random list of the potential benefits of the use of translation in language teaching, this essay suggests the use of a formal model of communicative competence, to see which of its components can profit of translation activities.
The result is a map of the effects of translation in the wide range of competences and abilities which constitute language learning. Under the situation of economic globalization today, the internationalization of advertising is becoming more and more obvious. All enterprises in all countries are meeting the same international, global problem, the problem of advertising translation. When dealing with advertising translation , we should take full account of language habits and cultural background of target customers.
Therefore, it turns out to be important that we should be familiar with the language characteristics and translation skills of English advertisements. In this paper, I will introduce the language characteristics of English advertisements from three aspects of words, syntax and rhetorical devices, and introduce skills of advertising translation. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in language teaching, that linguistic competences are the key to learning a language and to communicating in a foreign language ; consequently, they assume that translation ought to play a major role in the study of a foreign language.
Indeed, late 20th century theories of language teaching, apart from the grammar- translation method, have largely ignored or criticized the role of translation. The translated text was taken from The Simpsons, season 21, episode This collaborative project explores the affordances of a translation assignment in the context of a learner-centered pedagogy that places composition students' movement among languages and cultures as both a site for inquiry and subject of analysis.
The translation assignment asks students to translate scholarly articles or culture stories from…. South African sign language assistive translation. Full Text Available , the fact that the target structure is SASL, the home language of the Deaf user, already facilitates the communication. Ul- timately the message will be delivered more naturally by a signing avatar . We shall present further scenarios for future Work 6. We discuss both Pragmatic functions of fuzzy language and translation in English advertisements.
Paper discusses the application of fuzzy language and its translation , for the development of English advertising, creating a better path. The objective of this effort was to develop a prototype, hand-held or body-mounted spoken language translator to assist military and law enforcement personnel in interacting with non-English-speaking people This meeting aims at providing an overview of the current theory and practice, exploring new directions and emerging trends, sharing good practice, and exchanging information regarding foreign languages , applied linguistics and translation.
The meeting is an excellent opportunity for the presentation of current or previous language learning and translation projects funded by the European Commission or by other sources. Proposals are invited for one or more of the following topics, in any of t Richly interactive visualization tools are increasingly popular for data exploration and analysis in a wide variety of domains.
Existing systems and techniques for recording provenance of interaction focus either on comprehensive automated recording of low-level interaction events or on idiosyncratic manual transcription of high-level analysis activities. In this paper, we present the architecture and translation design of a query-to-question Q2Q system that automatically records user interactions and presents them semantically using natural language written English.
Q2Q takes advantage of domain knowledge and uses natural language generation NLG techniques to translate and transcribe a progression of interactive visualization states into a visual log of styled text that complements and effectively extends the functionality of visualization tools. We present Q2Q as a means to support a cross-examination process in which questions rather than interactions are the focus of analytic reasoning and action.
We describe the architecture and implementation of the Q2Q system , discuss key design factors and variations that effect question generation, and present several visualizations that incorporate Q2Q for analysis in a variety of knowledge domains. Clean translation of an imperative reversible programming language. We describe the translation techniques used for the code generation in a compiler from the high-level reversible imperative programming language Janus to the low-level reversible assembly language PISA.
Our translation is both semantics preserving correct , in that target programs compute exactly In particular, target programs only require a constant amount of temporary garbage space. The given translation methods are generic To our knowledge, this is the first compiler between reversible languages where the source and target languages were independently developed; the first exhibiting both Speech to Text Translation for Malay Language.
The speech recognition system is a front end and a back-end process that receives an audio signal uttered by a speaker and converts it into a text transcription. The speech system can be used in several fields including: therapeutic technology, education, social robotics and computer entertainments. In most cases in control tasks, which is the purpose of proposing our system , wherein the speed of performance and response concern as the system should integrate with other controlling platforms such as in voiced controlled robots.
Therefore, the need for flexible platforms, that can be easily edited to jibe with functionality of the surroundings, came to the scene; unlike other software programs that require recording audios and multiple training for every entry such as MATLAB and Phoenix. In this paper, a speech recognition system for Malay language is implemented using Microsoft Visual Studio C.
The result shows that the overall accuracy calculated from Confusion Matrix is satisfactory as it is Correlation of Translation and Other Language Activities. International cooperation in all professional settings makes translation a very important tool of interpersonal and professional relations of specialists in different domains. Training of undergraduates and graduates' translation skills in a special setting is included in the curriculum of non-linguistic higher education institutions and studied….
Combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language. Like sentences, combination of words is the main part of syntax in Persian language as well as in Russian language and plays an important role in sentence structures of these languages.
Combination of words in Russian language is divided into three categories: verbal combinations, nominal and adverbial combinations. The writers of this article have studied combination of verbs in Russian language and their translation in Persian language.
My point of departure for this paper is that translation , so long neglected in foreign language teaching, can not only improve students' linguistic competences in both a foreign language and their mother tongue, but also their awareness of cultural and intercultural elements. It is a widespread popular assumption, among those not involved in…. We have assembled a large corpus of student submissions to an automatic grading system , where the subject matter involves the translation of natural language sentences into propositional logic.
Of the 2. We want to understand the nature of…. Crawl and crowd to bring machine translation to under-resourced languages. We present a widely applicable methodology to bring machine translation MT to under-resourced languages in a cost-effective and rapid manner. Our proposal relies on web crawling to automatically acquire parallel data to train statistical MT systems if any such data can be found for the language. Language policies and sign language translation and interpreting: connections between Brazil and Mozambique.
In this context, two lines of argument are developed. Interdialect Translatability of the Basic Programming Language. The purpose was to determine if it was possible to identify a set of interactive BASIC dialects in which translatability between different members of the set would be high, if reasonable programing restrictions were imposed. It was first…. Full Text Available Motivated by a paradoxical corollary of ambiguities in legal documents and especially in contract texts, the current paper underpins a dichotomy approach to unintended ambiguities aiming to establish a referential framework for the occurrence rate of translation ambiguities within the legal language nomenclature.
The research focus is on a twofold situation since ambiguities may. Hence, the paper proposes a contrastive analysis in order to localize the occurrence of lexical, structural, and socio-cultural ambiguities triggered by the use of the term performance and its Romanian equivalents in a number of sales contracts. The third language : A recurrent textual restriction that translators come across in audiovisual translation.
Full Text Available If the process of translating is not at all simple, the process of translating an audiovisual text is still more complex. Apart rom technical problems such as lip synchronisation, there are other factors to be considered such as the use of the language and textual structures deemed appropriate to the channel of communication.
Bearing in mind that most of the films we are continually seeing on our screens were and are produced in the United States, there is an increasing need to translate them into the different languages of the world. There are many films containing two languages in the original version but in this paper we will focus mainly on three films: Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid , Raid on Rommel and Blade Runner The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium SBAC as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners.
The framework addresses important challenges in…. Translating textbooks: Russian, German, and the language of chemistry. Using the cases of three Russian chemistry textbooks from the s--authored by Freidrich Beilstein, A. Butlerov, and D. Mendeleev--this essay analyzes their contemporary translation into German and the implications of their divergent histories for scholars' understanding of the processes of credit accrual and the choices of languages of science.
Syntactic discriminative language model rerankers for statistical machine translation. This article describes a method that successfully exploits syntactic features for n-best translation candidate reranking using perceptrons. We motivate the utility of syntax by demonstrating the superior performance of parsers over n-gram language models in differentiating between Statistical.
Breaking the language barrier: machine assisted diagnosis using the medical speech translator. In this paper, we describe and evaluate an Open Source medical speech translation system MedSLT intended for safety-critical applications. The aim of this system is to eliminate the language barriers in emergency situation. It translates spoken questions from English into French, Japanese and Finnish in three medical subdomains headache, chest pain and abdominal pain , using a vocabulary of about words per sub-domain.
The architecture is a compromise between fixed-phrase translation on one hand and complex linguistically-based systems on the other. Recognition is guided by a Context Free Grammar Language Model compiled from a general unification grammar, automatically specialised for the domain. We present an evaluation of this initial prototype that shows the advantages of this grammar-based approach for this particular translation task in term of both reliability and use.
System programming languages. Most operating systems are written in the C programming language. Similar is with system software, for example, device drivers, compilers, debuggers, disk checkers, etc. Recently some new programming languages emerged, which are supposed to be suitable for system programming.
In this thesis we present programming languages D, Go, Nim and Rust. We defined the criteria which are important for deciding whether programming language is suitable for system programming. We examine programming langua Variation of Zipf's exponent in one hundred live languages : A study of the Holy Bible translations.
Zipf's law, as a power-law regularity, confirms long-range correlations between the elements in natural and artificial systems. In this article, this law is evaluated for one hundred live languages. We calculate Zipf's exponent for translations of the holy Bible to several languages , for this purpose. The results show that, the average of Zipf's exponent in studied texts is slightly above unity. It seems that geographical distribution impresses the communication between speakers of different languages in a language family, and affect similarity between their Zipf's exponent.
The Bible has unique concept regardless of its language , but the discrepancy in grammatical rules and syntactic regularities in applying stop words to make sentences and imply a certain concept, lead to difference in Zipf's exponent for various languages.
Handbook of natural language processing and machine translation DARPA global autonomous language exploitation. This comprehensive handbook, written by leading experts in the field, details the groundbreaking research conducted under the breakthrough GALE program - The Global Autonomous Language Exploitation within the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency DARPA , while placing it in the context of previous research in the fields of natural language and signal processing, artificial intelligence and machine translation.
The most fundamental contrast between GALE and its predecessor programs was its holistic integration of previously separate or sequential processes. In earlier language research pro. This report contains English- translated abstracts of important Chinese- language literature concerning global climate change for the years This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions.
In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest. The evolution and practical application of machine translation system 1.
This paper describes a development, practical applicatioin, problem of a system , evaluation of practical system , and development trend of machine translation. Most recent system contains next four problems. Machine translation system is already used practically in many industry fields. However, many problems are not solved.
The implementation of an ideal system will be after 15 years. Also, this paper described seven evaluation items detailedly. This English abstract was made by Mu system. Taking the Time. Studying language effects in the translation class. Full Text Available Abstract — The current translation market places growing emphasis on technological tools that assist or even replace the translator in quickly producing adequate target texts. As a person involved in cultural processes that affect public discourse and society at large, both as a practising literary translator and as a teacher of translation , I feel that academia should not only pursue market-oriented translation skills, such as procedural knowledge of computer-assisted translation CAT-tools and machine translation MT, but also aim at strengthening would-be translators ' processes of interpretation and making them autonomous language experts, aware of both the effects generated by language and their responsibility in using it.
To support my position, I will draw on cognitive linguistics and critical discourse analysis CDA. Adopting a constructivist approach, I will then refer to works by Kiraly , Venuti and Laviosa , and add some methodological proposals. Students will initially work individually and in groups, focusing on source texts, their translations and comparable texts in order to identify key language items and work toward meaning. By deploying CDA analytical tools, they will discuss the role played by individual items as well as the overall effect of both STs and TTs.
New source texts will then be analysed in preparation for translation. The actual translation , effect analysis and final editing, carried out as team work, will complete a cycle aimed at 1 helping students to build knowledge through experience; 2 sensitising them to the complexity of the translation process and the paramount value of meaning-making within every single context.
Riassunto — Il settore della traduzione attribuisce crescente importanza a strumenti tecnologici che aiutano o sostituiscono il traduttore nella rapida produzione di testi adeguati. Dirty pretty language : translation and the borders of English. With a celebrated multilingual cast, some of whom did not speak much English, the film nevertheless unfolds in English as it follows migrant characters living illegally and on the margins in London.
By attending to the subtleties of language in the film, we trace the pressure on migrants to translate themselves into the linguistic and mythological moulds of their new host society. Sign language recognition and translation : a multidisciplined approach from the field of artificial intelligence.
In recent years, research has progressed steadily in regard to the use of computers to recognize and render sign language. This paper reviews significant projects in the field beginning with finger-spelling hands such as "Ralph" robotics , CyberGloves virtual reality sensors to capture isolated and continuous signs , camera-based projects such as the CopyCat interactive American Sign Language game computer vision , and sign recognition software Hidden Markov Modeling and neural network systems.
The application of this research to education is also explored. The "ICICLE" Interactive Computer Identification and Correction of Language Errors project, for example, uses intelligent computer-aided instruction to build a tutorial system for deaf or hard-of-hearing children that analyzes their English writing and makes tailored lessons and recommendations. Finally, the article considers synthesized sign, which is being added to educational material and has the potential to be developed by students themselves.
CDL as a language for implementation systems in scientific environment. The special language is characterized which is convenient for system program description: translators , aditors, monitors, supervisors, etc. The definition for its basic syntactical constructions and some notes about the possible usage are described. The version of the translator for this language has been implemented by the author for CDC at JINR, and this report contains the description for the access to this translator and some possibilities of using this language on different computers.
Full Text Available In addition to affecting the Slovene education system , the Austrian denationalising policy in the second half of the 19th century had a direct impact on translation. Most of the already scarce Slovene philologists were appointed to posts outside the Slovene national territory. The conditions only began to improve in the s, with the translation activity taken up by the first students of the newly established philology courses at the University of Vienna Ladislav Hrovat, Matija Valjavec, etc..
More often than not, however, the translators were not philologists. The translations published as books represent the first Slovene book-format editions of the ancient classics, but most appeared in magazines and newspapers. Many translations met with the same fate as a number of contemporary Slovene classical- language textbooks: they remained in manuscript because of insufficient funds the publishers were unwilling to run the risk of such enterprises, for fear that their investment would not pay, and also because of the national-awakening emphasis on Slovene, which was accompanied by a preference for translating from other modern languages , particularly Slavic ones.
From the beginnings to the present, Slovene translations of the Greek and Latin classics have displayed a marked predominance of poetry, with prose works remaining in the minority. Fully automatic multi- language translation with a catalogue of phrases — successful employment for the Swiss avalanche bulletin. The Swiss avalanche bulletin is produced twice a day in four languages.
Due to the lack of time available for manual translation , a fully automated translation system is employed, based on a catalogue of predefined phrases and predetermined rules of how these phrases can be combined to produce. Data extraction from machine- translated versus original language randomized trial reports: a comparative study.
Google Translate offers free Web-based translation , but it is unknown whether its translation accuracy is sufficient to use in systematic reviews to mitigate concerns about language bias. We compared data extraction from non-English language studies with extraction from translations by Google Translate of 10 studies in each of five languages Chinese, French, German, Japanese and Spanish. Fluent speakers double-extracted original- language articles.
Researchers who did not speak the given language double-extracted translated articles along with 10 additional English language trials. Using the original language extractions as a gold standard, we estimated the probability and odds ratio of correctly extracting items from translated articles compared with English, adjusting for reviewer and language. Translation required about 30 minutes per article and extraction of translated articles required additional extraction time. The likelihood of correct extractions was greater for study design and intervention domain items than for outcome descriptions and, particularly, study results.
In general, extractors' confidence in translations was not associated with their accuracy. Translation by Google Translate generally required few resources. Based on our analysis of translations from five languages , using machine translation has the potential to reduce language bias in systematic reviews; however, pending additional empirical data, reviewers should be cautious about using translated data.
There remains a trade-off between completeness of systematic reviews including all available studies and risk of. This is a particularly important issue for languages where little data is available. This paper introduces an LM adaptation technique to improve an LM built using a small amount of task-dependent text with the help of a machine- translated text corpus. Icelandic speech recognition experiments were performed using data, machine translated MT from English to Icelandic on a word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence basis.
LM interpolation using the baseline LM and an LM built from either word-by-word or sentence-by-sentence translated text reduced the word error rate significantly when manually obtained utterances used as a baseline were very sparse. Translation of developmental-behavioral screening tools for use worldwide can be daunting. We summarize issues in translating these tools. Information sharing across the community of researchers is encouraged. This narrative may be helpful to novice researchers.
All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals. Objective: To translate the adult comorbidity evaluation ACE index authored by professor JF Piccirillo into Chinese and for the purpose of assessing the possible impact of comorbidity on survival of oral cancer patients and improving cancer staging. Methods: The translation included the following steps, obtaining permission from professor Piccirillo, translation , back translation , language modification, adjusted by the advice from the professors of oral and maxillofacial surgery.
The test population included patients who were admitted to Peking University of Stomatology during March Questionnaire survey was conducted on these patients. Retest of reliability, internal consistency reliability, content validity, and structure validity were performed. It is useful to assess the comorbidity of oral cancer patients. Full Text Available Translation is an activity of transferring information from one language into another.
In transferring the message, a translator not only renders a language form but also replaces a cultural content. Practically it is because translation itself an activity that involves at least two languages and two cultures Toury in James: Translating the text that contains a cultural content and message is more difficult than translating an ordinary text that only has literal meanings.
Cultural aspects that include in stereotypes, speech levels, pronouns, idioms, even in proverbs are things that can lead difficulties for translators to translate. He or she sometimes should look for the closest meaning in order the translation products can be accepted in the target language culture.
This paper presents an electronic dictionary and translation system for the Australian language Murrinh-Patha. Its complex verbal structure makes learning Murrinh-Patha very difficult. Design learning materials or a dictionary which is easy to understand and to use also presents a challenge.
This paper discusses some of the difficulties posed by…. Machine Translation as a complex system , and the phenomenon of Esperanto. The history of machine translation and the history of Esperanto have long been connected, as they are two different ways to deal with the same problem: the problem of communication across language barriers.
Models of kulture in Nabokov's memoirs and translation memoirs in Serbian and Croatian language. Nabokov's memoirs, that is the translation of the novel 'Drugie berega' 'The Other Shores' published in Russian as an authorized translation from the original English version 'Conclusive Evidence', and the translation of Nabokov's authorized translation from Russian to English entitled 'Speak, Memory'.
Creolization of three models of culture in translation from the two originals - Russian and English - Is presented. Specific features of the two Serbian translations are analyzed, and a survey of characteristic mistakes caused by some specific characteristics of the source language is given. Also, Nabokov's very original approach to translation which is quite interpretative is highlighted. Analysis and research of influence factors ranking of fuzzy language translation accuracy in literary works based on catastrophe progression method.
The multi-level evaluation system can be used to construct the relevant catastrophe progression model, and the normalization formula can be used to calculate the relative membership degree of each system and evaluation index, and make evaluation combined with the evaluation criteria table. This research focuses on the development of sign language translator application using OpenCV Android based, this application is based on the difference in color.
The author also utilizes Support Machine Learning to predict the label. Results of the research showed that the coordinates of the fingertip search methods can be used to recognize a hand gesture to the conditions contained open arms while to figure gesture with the hand clenched using search methods Hu Moments value. While the background of outdoor environment applications still can not be used with a success rate of only 6 managed and the rest failed.
Quasi-greedy systems of integer translates. We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift invariant subspace of L2 Rd , that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved. We prove that every quasi-greedy system of integer translates is also a Riesz basis for its closed We consider quasi-greedy systems of integer translates in a finitely generated shift-invariant subspace of L2 Rd , that is systems for which the thresholding approximation procedure is well behaved.
Among the literary genres, poetry is the one that resists translation the most. Creating a new and innovative language that breaks the usual rules of the standard language with brand-new uses and meanings is probably one of the most important goals of the poet.
Poetry challenges the translator to capture not only original images, exceptional…. In this paper, we discuss the benefits of using online translators in the foreign language classroom. Decision table languages and systems. ACM Monograph Series: Decision Table Languages and Systems focuses on linguistic examination of decision tables and survey of the features of existing decision table languages and systems.
The book first offers information on semiotics, programming language features, and generalization. Discussions focus on semantic broadening, outer language enrichments, generalization of syntax, limitations, implementation improvements, syntactic and semantic features, decision table syntax, semantics of decision table languages , and decision table programming languages. The text then elaborates on design im. Left Dislocation and its translation in some Germanic languages This exploratory study investigates how twenty translations fifteen English, three Afrikaans, Language translation challenges with Arabic speakers participating in qualitative research studies.
This paper discusses how a research team negotiated the challenges of language differences in a qualitative study that involved two languages. The lead researcher shared the participants' language and culture, and the interviews were conducted using the Arabic language as a source language , which was then translated and disseminated in the English language target language. The challenges in relation to translation in cross-cultural research were highlighted from a perspective of establishing meaning as a vital issue in qualitative research.
The paper draws on insights gained from a study undertaken among Arabic-speaking participants involving the use of in-depth semi-structured interviews. The study was undertaken using a purposive sample of 15 participants with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and co-existing depression and explored their perception of self-care management behaviours.
Data analysis was performed in two phases. The first phase entailed translation and transcription of the data, and the second phase entailed thematic analysis of the data to develop categories and themes. In this paper there is discussion on the translation process and its inherent challenges.
As translation is an interpretive process and not merely a direct message transfer from a source language to a target language , translators need to systematically and accurately capture the full meaning of the spoken language. This discussion paper highlights difficulties in the translation process, specifically in managing data in relation to metaphors, medical terminology and connotation of the text, and importantly, preserving the meaning between the original and translated data.
Recommendations for future qualitative studies involving interviews with non-English speaking participants are outlined, which may assist researchers maintain the integrity of the data throughout the translation process. It has been observed that data-based translation programs are often used both in and outside the class unconsciously and thus there occurs many problems in foreign language learning and teaching.
To draw attention to this problem, with this study, whether the program has satisfactory results or not has been revealed by making translations from…. Volume 4: Interpretive code translator. This specification identifies and describes the principal functions and elements of the Interpretive Code Translator which has been developed for use with the GOAL Compiler.
This translator enables the user to convert a compliled GOAL program to a highly general binary format which is designed to enable interpretive execution. The translator program provides user controls which are designed to enable the selection of various output types and formats. These controls provide a means for accommodating many of the implementation options which are discussed in the Interpretive Code Guideline document. The technical design approach is given.
The relationship between the translator and the GOAL compiler is explained and the principal functions performed by the Translator are described. Specific constraints regarding the use of the Translator are discussed. The control options are described. These options enable the user to select outputs to be generated by the translator and to control vrious aspects of the translation processing. The main novelty of the submitted system is a syntaxdriven. An analysis of machine translation and speech synthesis in speech-to-speech translation system.
This paper provides an analysis of the impacts of machine translation and speech synthesis on speech-to-speech translation systems. The speech-to-speech translation system consists of three components: speech recognition, machine translation and speech synthesis. Many techniques for integration of speech recognition and machine translation have been proposed.
However, speech synthesis has not yet been considered. Therefore, in this paper, we focus on machine translation and speech synthesis, Translation in cell-free systems. The simplest, unambiguous identification of a particular mRNA is the identification of its protein product. This can be established by translation of the mRNA of interest in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system. The two high-activity translation systems in common use are those prepared from rabbit reticulocytes and from wheat germ.
Both systems are easy to prepare, and both are available commercially. Each has advantages and disadvantages over the other and a choice between the two will depend on the type of mRNAs to be translated , the prejudices of experience, and availability. The main disadvantage of the reticulocyte system is that it requires removal of endogenous mRNA. However, this is a relatively simple procedure. The wheat germ system does not require removal of endogenous mRNA and may translate weakly initiating mRNAs more efficiently.
However, ionic optima for translation in the wheat germ system are more sensitive to the nature and concentration of mRNA and may need to be determined for each template. The biggest problem with the use of the wheat germ system is its tendency to produce incomplete translation products due to premature termination.
Translation and interpretation of sign language in the postgraduate context: problematizing positions. We conceive that deconstruction does not consist in a method to be applied on the linguistic and social phenomena, but a set of political strategies that comes from a speech community which translate texts, and thus put themselves in a translational task performing an act of reading that inserts sign language in the academic linguistic multiplicity. Where do borders lie in translated literature?
The case of the changing English- language market. Full Text Available Anecdotal accounts suggest that one reason for the perceived resistance to translated literature in English- language markets is that commissioning editors are averse to considering texts that they cannot read. This article considers how this phenomenon indicates a shift in the borders between literatures, how it disrupts accepted commercial practices, and the consequences of this for the industry and the role of English in the global book trade.
In particular, it considers consequences for the quality of translations , questions regarding copyright, and the uncertain position for the translator when, at the time of translating , a contract is not in place between the translator and the publisher of the translation. Translation and cultural adaptation of the Hip Outcome Score to the Portuguese language ,. METHODS: the Hip Outcome Score questionnaire was translated into Portuguese following the methodology consisting of the steps of translation , back- translation , pretesting and final translation.
In the domain relating to activities of daily living, there were no difficulties in comprehending the translated questionnaire. Additional studies are underway with the objective of evaluating the reproducibility and validity of the Brazilian translation. What language is your doctor speaking? Facing the problems of translating medical documents into English.
Full Text Available What is translation - a craft, an art, a profession or a job? Although one of the oldest human activities, translation has not still been fully defined, and it is still young in terms of an academic discipline. When translating medical documentation, a translator is set within a medical language environment as an intermediary between two doctors in other words, two professionals in the process of communication which would be impossible without him, since it is conducted in two different languages.
The paper also gives an insight into types of medical documentation and who they are intended for. It gives practical examples of the problems faced in the course of translation of certain types of medical documentation hospital discharge papers, diagnoses, case reports, Is it possible to make this kind of communication between professionals doctors standardized, which would subsequently make their translation easier?
Although great efforts are made in Serbia regarding medical language and medical terminology, the conclusion is that specific problems encountered by translators can hardly be overcome using only dictionaries and translation manuals. Full Text Available The article addresses the differential-psychological aspect of translating abilities as a component of language abilities. The peculiarity of translation is described including both linguistic and paralinguistic aspects of translating a content and a sense from one language into another accompanied by linguistic and cognitive actions.
A variety of individual and psychological peculiarities of translation based on the translation dominant were revealed. It was demonstrated that these peculiarities are relevant to communicative and linguistic types of language abilities discovered byM. Valid assessment methods such as M. The results suggest that all the typological differences are based on special human types of HNA.
Extreme subjects of both types try to use the most developed components of their special abilities in order to compensate the components of the other type which are not well developed to accomplish some language tasks. In this case subjects of both types can fulfill these tasks rather successfully.
Prepositional phrases with verba dicendi from Dalmatin's translation of the Bible in relation to foreign language translations. Noun compounds are frequently encountered construction in nature language processing NLP , consisting of a sequence of two or more nouns which functions syntactically as one noun. The translation of noun compounds has become a major issue in Machine Translation MT due to their frequency of occurrence and high productivity.
In our previous studies on Super-Function Based Machine Translation SFBMT , we have found that noun compounds are very frequently used and difficult to be translated correctly, the overgeneration of noun compounds can be dangerous as it may introduce ambiguity in the translation. In this paper, we discuss the challenges in handling Japanese noun compounds in an SFBMT system , we present a shallow method for translating noun compounds by using a word level translation dictionary and target language monolingual corpus.
Full Text Available The first translations of the New Testament into the Russian language , which were carried out at the beginning of the 19th century, are usually regarded as a missionary project. But the language of these translations may prove that they were addressed to a rather narrow audience.
As is known, the Russian Bible Society established in began its activities not with translations into Russian but with the mass edition of the Church Slavonic text of the Bible. The numbers of targeted readers for the Russian- language translation of the Bible were significantly lower than those for the Church Slavonic version. The language into which the New Testament was translated moved ahead of the literary standard of that period, and that was one of the reasons why the work on the translation of the Bible into the Russian language was halted.
Selected translated abstracts of Russian- language climate-change publications. Burtis, M. This report presents English- translated abstracts of important Russian- language literature concerning general circulation models as they relate to climate change. Into addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian.
Selected translated abstracts of Russian- language climate-change publications, III aerosols: Issue Razuvaev, V. This report presents abstracts in Russian and translated into English of important Russian- language literature concerning aerosols as they relate to climate change. In addition to the bibliographic citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Russian. Selected translated abstracts of Russian- language climate-change publications: II, Clouds.
Issue This report presents abstracts translated into English of important Russian- language literature concerning clouds as they relate to climate change. Author and title indexes are included, to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest. Integrating source- language context into phrase-based statistical machine translation. The translation features typically used in Phrase-Based Statistical Machine Translation PB-SMT model dependencies between the source and target phrases, but not among the phrases in the source language themselves.
A swathe of research has demonstrated that integrating source context modelling.
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Most important is to keep appearances. How could daddy have switched mom for a man with painted fingernails? It can be fantastic to have two dads! Thomas and Andreas are the perfect happy couple, who miss only a child in their lives — so one day Andreas steals one from a baby box, knowing the biological parents are illegal immigrants facing deportation if they report him…. Splashing cocoa and an all-girl gang shooting stones at their neighbors.
What would the brother of one of its members have to do to make them let him in? The youngest drag performer in the world has to make a choice and face the consequences. High school clashes in the corridors are quite common. But in this school not far from Rome they extend outside the school following the scooter cruises.
It has been a tradition to donate blood once in a while on a charitable occasion. It does not hurt and you get a drink and something to eat. Unless you stay in your car with an HIV test in your hand and send your grandma ahead. The Kinsey Scale is the controversial argument stating that sexual orientation is not either-or… How the academic thesis can play out in real life is a shock for the until-recently contently heterosexual hipster in Johannesburg, when he starts seeing his best friend in quite a different way….
Stopping his fights in defense of bullied Tye would do. It is more than a cell that Tye and Malcom share, though. Venuz Vulgar gathers his courageous queer companions for a crusade from Finland to St. Yeah, Kowalski! I tried everything. Will I be hairless forever?!? Please help. Thank you. When your crush is boy who is not yet aware that he is into boys too, it kind of sucks.
Especially when you know that he fancies you too, given you are in the middle of nowhere all alone. Only, in the morning he is as straight as they come… Beautifully shot comingout romance in the woods. But nothing can provoke any emotion in his heart, not even a home-made suicide attempt. How to fit 50 years of faggotry into five minutes? A subjective answer of one author is presented by a golden fortuneteller.
Spend half a year compiling various film materials together. The final cut will bring a unique emotional experience. Both the theme and animation style bring memories of legendary sequences of Hedwig and the Angry Inch — the coauthor of the music video is John Cameron Mitchell himself. A taky jsou SEXY! A brief message to the world, coming from the research of two London trans directors along with Galop organization, states that trans guys live among us and that, apart from those tough moments, they deal with the same troubles as anyone else.
The time for revolution has come and homophobia will be purged from this world! What do Muslim women wear under their traditional chador? A student experimental film inquiring into the question of lesbian relationships in the realm of Islam. Never has there been an exorcism so pink and rabbity as the one performed by Christeene with her eyes as blue as the clearest spring, fans-armed sumo dancers and a gang of insatiable anthroanimals! They head at full speed degrees round.
Yes, it was the same guy that made this video too. Maty Dio, the mother of four children. Drag is more than just a show. It is a constant reminder of the daily roles in our lives and also that unless we take our social masks off, we risk betraying our true needs. Czecho-Slovak queer phenomena is back! Marika Gombitova, black leather and an explosion. In the eponymous ballet for children the little Pete conquers the bad wolf.
Because this Pete is a big bad boy dressed in leather who specializes in hunting sexy muscular wolves, to which he shows no mercy. Main topic — bullying. Benjamin does not express himself much in public; however, his fantasies bloom. They fill up his lonely home, which we see through his eyes hardly distinguishing reality from the colorful figments of his obsessive thoughts.
So, what is real then? Do you know all your queer celebrities? Are you sure? They host their TV show where they offer advice on relationships or overcoming arachnophobia in a pleasant way — not even Ellen could do that! A girl with a moustache and a large set of boobs, or do I skip the boobs tonight?
However, in the battle against shadows hidden in between the lockers and deep inside his heart, he will need his muscles as well as faith and determination. The collaboration of director Juan Carlos Zaldivar and sculptress Anja Marais gave birth to a character robbed of her face.
Melitta is lonely girl mocked by her classmates. One day she receives a letter from Milan — a boy she does not know and who likes her. But she cannot figure out why her first childhood sweetheart and secret admirer refuses to meet up. A persistent paper folded bird that is impossible to catch or to drive out Dating is hard on everyone. But it can get even more complicated when you are a genderqueer transman who would like to date men but is still only getting settled in his identity.
Animationdocumentary diary offers instructions for dating and identity nooks of Sam Berliner. Nechte si chutnat! Cookies, pies, cakes, marzipan, icing, cupcakes, slices, muffins And how hard is it to share the creative kitchen space for you? He will miss fish and chips and also his friend Benny. Benny will miss him, too. Life sucks. Even more if you would like to solve some of your own problems.
But his lover is starting to rebel against the arrangement and Liam is getting anxious. All is fair in love and all is fair in a war. Even more in the case of two Stormtroopers who are not too happy with the system governing the Death Star, and the war in question being Star Wars.
Everyone gets over a failed relationship in his own way. Edward goes on a trip to Brighton and puts up photos with his ex in the places where they were once together. But the break-up is not the only shadow in his mind. And here comes the mysterious Ben…. Daniel is a shy comic bookstore clerk, who enjoys taking care of his plastic figures collection. He also likes men, but what is he supposed to do when asking someone out or even kissing him is so much more complicated than showing courage in the virtual reality of online gaming?
Dylan is at a point where he would prefer to have no interference from any parent, so he could devote himself to his band and maybe one ginger band member. In a cascade, lies and secrets of past and present are revealed, concerning both the sets of mothers and fathers. Chaos rules and everyone is looking for a way out and to stabilize the whole modern family of four parents and one teenager.
Eileen Kathleen Turner is the head of the family in an American small town and is a devoted Catholic, who does her confession twice a day and fills her free time with chores like delivering food to the elderly. Everything in her life is organized and ruled by an iron fist.
When she is about to receive the Catholic Woman of the Year Award, she is desperate to convince the committee that her family is beyond perfect in every way. A crazy screwball Finnish-French comedy in which the neurotic Ruben goes from the idyllic life of a postman in a Finnish village, where he lives with his stud blond boyfriend, through a series of catastrophic situations all the way back home to Paris.
And he has to take care of a million euros in a paper bag, a pissed-off lover, and worst of all, his adoring, but completely dysfunctional Jewish family for whom a knack for disasters runs throughout the generations. Great conversational humor, absurd sketches, and beautifully colorful visuals are topped only by the superb castlead by the legendary Carmen. What is your truth and what is your deception when you go up on stage and give yourself to the audience?
Where does the mask, costume and game end and the totally bared quite literally personality begin and show herself completely? A special section devoted to a selection of the best of queer performance in all the colors, shapes and disciplines queer performance comes in — music, drag show, gender illusionism and stand-up.
To be played at the maximum volume. When the British dramatist Mark Ravenhill was doing research for one of his plays, they told him he should meet Bette Bourne. By discovering Bette he reveals a notable part of London queer history. A successful acting career is put on hold while Bette starts a drag commune and fights for gay rights in high heels.
Politically motivated drag is not far from. Their humorous gigs let them travel all around Europe and part of the USA. Today, Bette works with the Royal Shakespeare Company and as of late has also been awarded a fellowship by his old drama school, the Central School of Speech and Drama. The stories of charismatic queer actors present several decades of the fight for equality.
A child prodigy, Bruce Wayne Campbell, started his career in acting in the legendary musical Hair. Later, he started a folk-rock band called Pidgeon. Not much later, Jerry Brandt — the discoverer of the acclaimed pop singer Carla Simon as well as founder of the spectacular club, The Electric Circus — took control of his own path.
By naming Bruce, Jobriath Boone, Jerry was determined to make a new star. After the failure of presenting his true nature, he moved to the most fabulous apartment in the New York Chelsea Hotel and, under a new name, became a popular cabaret singer.
In , though, the constant pursuit of his own identity suddenly came to an end And his mission is to daunt audience expectations, giving himself away and going skin deep on stage — quite literally. The best false orgasm competition that Lazlo presents is the starting point of a more serious lively debate about what it takes to be a man or a woman, and what lies in the ambivalent and colorful space in-between these binaries.
Although you do not hear the terms queer, performer, activist or actionist once, Lazlo is actually trying to redefine these, while inviting. A lot of these he did not take with such grace initially — not even the glass eye that he now switches for a glowing one shall the show demand it. Their often bizarre creations pour out joy, a unique visual attitude mixed with meticulous fascination with detail. We all adore Peaches, the multi-talented performer and musician who blends mainstream with underground and is famous for passion of clever and engaging provocation.
It tells the story of a little girl in a little room who likes music and desires fame — when instead of a good fairy a veteran stripper descends from the sky, framed in a gigantic flickering vagina and the frenzy of Peaches unstoppable imagination kicks off….
Theatre constitutes the Do Nothing film. Amstell vivisects his past attempts at dating and relationships that have not been on the successful side. Three very different life stories make three quite varied documentary films — one of an imaginary world that salvages the ruins of the previous life; one of virtual reality and internet fame into which the everyday reality blends and fades and one of a chilling manipulation of the truth about blame and punishment in a murder case too improbable — if it were not brutally true….
How do you deal with complete amnesia and loss of control after a senseless bashing by a group of teenagers? When you have no idea who you are, and all that is left are shards of events and people in photographs, your drawings, and a diary of the alcoholic that you supposedly used to be… Mark tells his story in which he built a new miniature world armed with only his creativity and imagination. A narrative in a WWII set in his backyard, carefully.
Chris adores Britney Spears, stylizes himself as her, is being raised by his grandparents who believe the Internet made him gay and is bullied by classmates in bum-fuck town, Tennessee. His answer to his. His tools entail a webcam and broadband wifi.
We meet the young Chris obsessed with his videos and the Chris of 24 years, and soon discover one unpleasant family history. A fascinating modern story written by the Internet takes views of the virtual identities and manners in which people, tell, share and modify their stories. The multi-layered documentary is a directing debut, which charmed many festivals since premiering at Sundance. California, the year-old Larry King was murdered in a classroom by his classmate. The incident occurred during a lecture, a day after Larry declared his love to Brandon publicly, afterwards exposing Brandon to mockery by his friends.
The film is concerned not only with the subsequent court case— it is most important because of the paramount concern with removing bias. The alarming case of Brandon McInerney shows the ability to relativize unambiguous facts and erase or re-label who is the victim and who is the offender. An HBO production about a societal, ethical, system and most of all: human failure.
Two legendary Academy Award Winner films adapting actual criminal cases in the USA, just few years after they occurred, with thrilling starring performances in the roles of immortal personas of LGBT history. Complemented by a documentary confronting the processes of true stories becoming the true lies of the the silver screen.
Once upon a time in the early s there was a young man named Brandon Teena. He had clashes with the law since puberty, but all seemed to be taking a turn for the better once he came to start a new life in the onehorse town Falls City in Nebraska. Here he found friends among ex-cons, blended in the community as the handsome stranger and most importantly, charmed the local beau Lana to fall in love with him.
The true story had a chance of a fairytale ending only till the guarded secret was revealed — that the pleasant boy Brandon has Teena Brandon written as given name on his driving license alongside the mark for sex —. F for female. A gripping drama about courage to be who you are whatever the circumstances and to fight for your truth, tied with the doomed love story, was prepared by the director Kimberly Peirce after years of researching the actual events as well as looking for the ideal cast for the role of Brandon — found in the actress Hilary Swank, who was for this portrayal awarded the Oscar.
Tak tedy. Warning: Do not continue reading if you do not know the ending of the film Dog Day Afternoon. Warning nr. Three years later a film hit the cinemas, with Al Pacino starring as Wojtowicz, and became an instant classic of. The New Hollywood. What is the version of the elusive Wojtowicz? Why did the film, which secured him immortality on the silver screen, cause him to be exemplarily punished by his fellow prisoners?
And did he ever get to see his lover again, the one for whom he attempted the robbery in the first place? The plan was a minute action — enter the local bank with a shotgun, take the money, and disappear. Separated only by a glass door, the police teams are gathering outside, followed by TV crews streaming the stalemate situation live to the small screens and hordes of passerby locals, who support Sonny — only until they find out who he was stealing the money for.
A brilliant suspense thriller stars the young Al Pacino and offers the film version of an actual event from August 22, The war of nerves is on, the temperature rising in the claustrophobic. At the opening party you will dance your pants off, get to know the festival team, and will get a Jameson drink for free. The night will get even crazier with. HuDi klub Ilusion, Praha 9. Hashtag of the evening?
After the screening, we will shake Lucerna one last time with a party connecting the old with the new, retro with the red-hot now. Tak zase za rok! Everyone is guaranteed a Jameson welcome drink, but those in a 90s outfit will get an extra lime. See you next year! HaDivadlo, Brno The special guest of the evening will be the Czech branch of the punk formation Pussy Riot, who in addition to their guerilla songs will also perform an affectionate and motherly strip tease for President Putin.
The closing kiss-in will be dedicated to Russian gay activists. This program follows the screening of the film Cloudburst. During his set he not only plays on many instruments, but also creates and reproduces various sounds from which new things are born.
And the next time, perhaps you can get your haircut by him. Kino Scala, Brno Is music truth or fiction? Or a truthful lie? Surprise those around you, let out your various selves, and take over this spectacular Saturday event in the unique space of HuDi klub Ilusion. Just like electro queen Peaches. We will play for you a recording of her performance Peaches Does Herself. Only in Czech language. Talk only in Czech language. Langhans, Praha 8. Langhans, Praha 9. Langhans, Praha The Twilight of Equality?
Her research focuses on gender, history of sexuality, cultural politics and Queer theory. Lisa Duggan wrote a number of books, e. Jak je na tom queer humor? This femi-punk formation is not sugar-coated in any way and will surely entertain. Karol Radziszewski nar. Karol Radziszewski b. He works with photography, video, film, installations and creates interdisciplinary projects. His practice extends to magazines, artist books, fashion as well as curatorial concept projects.
He is publisher and editor-in-chief of DIK Fagazine. Will you also recognize yourselves in the photos? The photographic capturing of the relationship of two young men. The result are photographs not of a mere romantic cliche nature, but rather a depection of the reality of a very real relationship. Play only in Czech language. Autor: D. Films cannot be the only thing keeping you animated during the festival. Come to Cafe Lucerna in between the projections to relax, refresh, and take in the festival experiences.
Come and be surprised over a coffee or some other good drink. A to nebudete muset! Jak jim to jde? Program only in Czech language. What is exactly patriotism and how do we come to understand our own culture? This series of watercolors based on those photos illustrates everyday life and interactions, but also special events and celebrations Lent Carnival.
We're intent on clearing it up 'Nip it in the butt' or 'Nip it in the bud'? We're gonna stop you right there Literally How to use a word that literally drives some pe Is Singular 'They' a Better Choice? A new year of words of the day quizzes! Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something a Login or Register. Save Word. Keep scrolling for more. Examples of together in a Sentence Adverb They went to the party together. First Known Use of together Adverb before the 12th century, in the meaning defined at sense 1a Adjective , in the meaning defined at sense 1.
Learn More about together. Time Traveler for together The first known use of together was before the 12th century See more words from the same century. Dictionary Entries near together togavirus toge toged together together with Toggenburg toggery See More Nearby Entries. Phrases Related to together band together bang heads together bring together club together come together crowded together get it together.
More Definitions for together. Kids Definition of together. Comments on together What made you want to look up together? Get Word of the Day daily email! Test Your Vocabulary. Test your knowledge - and maybe learn something along the way. Spell words. Make bears. Love words?
Thirdly, the employed reference translations are very expensive and sometimes not available in the practice. In this paper, the authors propose an unsupervised MT evaluation metric using universal part-of-speech tagset without relying on reference translations. The authors also explore the performances of the designed metric on traditional supervised evaluation tasks. Both the supervised and unsupervised experiments show that the designed methods yield higher correlation scores with human judgments.
Adaptation of machine translation for multilingual information retrieval in the medical domain. We investigate machine translation MT of user search queries in the context of cross-lingual information retrieval IR in the medical domain. The main focus is on techniques to adapt MT to increase translation quality; however, we also explore MT adaptation to improve effectiveness of cross-lingual IR.
Our MT system is Moses, a state-of-the-art phrase-based statistical machine translation system. The MT techniques employed in this work include in-domain training and tuning, intelligent training data selection, optimization of phrase table configuration, compound splitting, and exploiting synonyms as translation variants.
The IR methods include morphological normalization and using multiple translation variants for query expansion. The experiments are performed and thoroughly evaluated on three language pairs: Czech-English, German-English, and French-English. The search query translation results achieved in our experiments are outstanding - our systems outperform not only our strong baselines, but also Google Translate and Microsoft Bing Translator in direct comparison carried out on all the language pairs.
The baseline BLEU scores increased from In terms of the IR performance on this particular test collection, a significant improvement over the baseline is achieved only for French-English. Most of the MT techniques employed in our experiments improve MT of medical search queries.
Especially the intelligent training data selection proves to be very successful for domain adaptation of. Mitochondrial DNA mt DNA mutations cause a wide range of serious diseases with high transmission risk and maternal inheritance. Owing to the absence of therapy, couples at risk to transmit such disorders commonly ask for prenatal PND or preimplantation diagnosis PGD.
The lack of data regarding heteroplasmy distribution throughout intrauterine development, however, hampers the implementation of such procedures. We tracked the segregation of the m. Mutant mt DNA segregation was found to be governed by random genetic drift, during oogenesis and somatic tissue development. The size of the bottleneck operating for m. Comparison with data we achieved for the m. Hum Mutat —, RNA parts often serve as critical components in genetic engineering.
Here we report a design of translational activators which is composed of an RNA endoribonuclease Csy4 and two exchangeable RNA modules. Csy4, a member of Cas endoribonuclease, cleaves at a specific recognition site; this cleavage releases a cis-repressive RNA module crRNA from the masked ribosome binding site RBS , which subsequently allows the downstream translation initiation.
As an exchangeable module, the crRNA-RBS duplex was forwardly and reversely engineered to modulate the dynamic range of translational activity. We further showed that Csy4 and its recognition site, together as a module, can also be replaced by orthogonal endoribonuclease-recognition site homologues.
These modularly structured, high-performance translational activators would endow the programming of gene expression in the translation level with higher feasibility. Methodology for the analysis of transcription and translation in transcription-coupled-to- translation systems in vitro.
The various properties of RNA polymerase RNAP complexes with nucleic acids during different stages of transcription involve various types of regulation and different cross-talk with other cellular entities and with fellow RNAP molecules. The interactions of transcriptional apparatus with the translational machinery have been focused mainly in terms of outcomes of gene expression, whereas the study of the physical interaction of the ribosome and the RNAP remains obscure partly due to the lack of a system that allows such observations.
In this article we will describe the methodology needed to set up a pure, transcription-coupled-to- translation system in which the translocation of the ribosome can be performed in a step-wise manner towards RNAP allowing investigation of the interactions between the two machineries at colliding and non-colliding distances.
In the same time RNAP can be put in various types of states, such as paused, roadblocked, backtracked, etc. The experimental system thus allows studying the effects of the ribosome on different aspects of transcription elongation and the effects by RNAP on translation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Caregivers experienced significant decreases in burden, depression, anxiety, number of troubling patient behaviors reported, caregiving frustrations, stress symptoms feeling overwhelmed, feeling like crying, being frustrated as a result of caregiving, being lonely , and general stress.
Effect sizes Cohen's d for these significant variables were between small and medium ranging from. The implementation of REACH VA provides a road map for implementation of other behavioral interventions in health care delivery settings. Lessons learned include the importance of implementing a proven, needed intervention, support from both leadership and clinical staff, willingness to respond to staff and organization needs and modify the intervention while preserving its integrity, and fitting the intervention into ongoing routines and practices.
A marine extension is also under development. For Enhanced Oil recovery EOR , in addition to reservoir flood front movements, reservoir seal integrity has become an issue . Seal integrity is best addressed with microseismics while the water flood front is best addressed with electromagnetics.
Since the flooded reservoir is conductive and the hydrocarbon saturated part is resistive, you need both magnetic and electric fields. The fluid imaging is addressed using electromagnetics. To overcome the volume-focus inherent to electromagnetics a new methodology to focus the sensitivity under the receiver is proposed.
Edgecumbe , New Zealand. Edgecumbe magma system. This may have led to the transfer of volatile components from the magmatic to hydrothermal systems. The variations in abundance of these elements were used to assess magma evolution and volatile exsolution or fluxing in the magma system.
Excluding Li and Cu, other volatile and ore metals recorded in melt inclusions behave incompatibly, with concentrations increasing during evolution from rhyodacitic to rhyolitic melt compositions. Li and Cu appear to have increased mobility likely resulting from diffusive exchange post-crystallization, and may be related to late volatile fluxing.
Although S and Cl concentrations decrease with melt evolution, no mineralogical evidence exists to indicate the exsolution and mobility of ore-forming metals from the magma at the time of crystallization. This observation cannot rule out the potential for post-crystallization volatile exsolution and ore-forming metal mobilization, which may only be recorded as diffusive re-equilibration of more rapidly diffusing.
This paper attempts to compare between the advancements in the productivity of Arabic into English Machine Translation Systems between two years, and It also aims to evaluate the progress achieved by various systems of Arabic into English electronic translation between the two years. For tracing such advancement, a comparative analysis…. Final Technical Report. This report describes work on a pilot system for a fully automatic, high-quality translation of German scientific and technical text into English and gives the results of an experiment designed to show the system 's capability to produce quality mechanical translation.
The areas considered were: 1 grammar formalism, mainly involving the addition…. Baekdu Volcanic Eruption in South Korea. Korea is regarded as a safety area from the volcanic disaster, however, the countermeasures for Mt. Baekdu volcanic eruption has been discussed because the possibility of the volcanic eruption had been heightened and various experimental results show risk of Mt.
Baekdu volcanic eruption. The purpose of study is to establish management standards and manual for water supply system through the analysis of the volcanic ash effect to the water supply systems. In this study, similar case study for the water supply system to the volcanic ash damage had been investigated. Present status of water supply system and response manual for water supply systems also had been investigated.
And then problems of present response manual using had been estimated. As the result, damage according to Mt. Baekdu volcanic eruption on the water supply system could be forecasted. And the direction of management standard and response manual has been established. With an increasing number of patients requiring translator services, many providers are turning to mobile applications apps for assistance. However, there have been no published reviews of medical translator apps. A list of apps was identified from the Apple iTunes and Google Play stores, using the search term, "medical translator.
App comprehensiveness was a weighted score defined by the number of non-English languages included in each app relative to the proportion of non-English speakers in the United States. The Apple iTunes and Google Play stores. Medical translator apps identified using the search term "medical translator. A total of apps were initially found. After applying the exclusion criteria, 20 8. A large proportion of apps initially found did not function as medical translator apps.
Translating a verbal coding system from one language to another can yield unexpected insights into the process of communication in different cultures. This paper describes the problems and understandings we encountered as we translated a verbal response modes VRM taxonomy from English into Spanish. Standard translations of text e. Prominent examples of English forms whose translation had different codes in Spanish included tags, question forms, and "let's" expressions.
Insofar as participants use such forms to convey nuances of their relationship, standard translations of counseling or psychotherapy sessions or other conversations may systematically misrepresent the relationship between the participants.
The differences revealed in translating the VRM system point to subtle but important differences in the degrees of verbal directiveness and inclusion in English versus Spanish, which converge with other observations of differences in individualism and collectivism between Anglo and Hispanic cultures. Preliminary study of online machine translation use of nursing literature: quality evaluation and perceived usability.
Background Japanese nurses are increasingly required to read published international research in clinical, educational, and research settings. Language barriers are a significant obstacle, and online machine translation MT is a tool that can be used to address this issue.
We also examined the perceived usability and current use of online MT among Japanese nurses. Findings Randomly selected nursing abstracts were translated and then evaluated for intelligibility and usability by 28 participants, including assistants and research associates from nursing universities throughout Japan.
They answered a questionnaire about their online MT use. From simple comparison of mean scores between two language pairs, translation quality was significantly better, with respect to both intelligibility and usability, for Korean-Japanese than for English-Japanese. Most respondents perceived a language barrier. Conclusion Nursing articles translated from Korean into Japanese by an online MT system could be read at an acceptable level of comprehension, but the same could not be said for English-Japanese translations.
Respondents with experience using online MT used it largely to grasp the overall meanings of the original text. Enrichment in technical terms appeared to be the key to better usability. Users will be better able to use MT outputs if they improve their foreign language proficiency as much as possible. Further research is being conducted with a larger sample size and detailed analysis. The MeSH translation maintenance system : structure, interface design, and implementation.
Translations of MeSH are often done to make the vocabulary useful for non-English users. However, MeSH translators have encountered difficulties with entry vocabulary as they maintain and update their translation. Tracking MeSH changes and updating their translations in a reasonable time frame is cumbersome.
This database allows continual updating of the translations , as well as facilitating tracking of the changes within MeSH from one year to another. The MTMS interface uses a Web-based design with multiple colors and fonts to indicate concepts needing translation or review. Concepts for which there is no exact English equivalent can be added. The system software encourages compliance with the Unicode standard in order to ensure that character sets with native alphabets and full orthography are used consistently.
The July - August Mt. Etna eruptions: insights on the magmatic feeding system from geochemical and geophysical data. The volcanic activity of Mt. Etna has been characterized by a marked change in the eruptive behavior with respect to the one that occurred during the time interval.
During the period, the volcanic activity was characterized by the occurrence of more than 40 vigorous lava fountain episodes at the summit New South-East Crater hereinafter NSEC. Conversely, from the end of to the end of , although intense Strombolian and effusive activity took place at NSEC, the volcanic activity never culminated in sustained lava fountaining and voluminous tephra emission.
The July - August eruption can be framed within such a low level of volcanic activity. This eruption started on July 5 , when a fissure opened on the lower eastern flank of the summit North-East Crater hereinafter NEC , close to the fracture field of the eruption. These fissures fed weak Strombolian activity and minor lava emission from two new vents located at about m elevation.
On July 25, more intense Strombolian activity took place at a further vent opened close to these two vents, at m elevation. The eruption from the vents on the lower eastern flank of NEC continued until August 9. This last eruption, culminating during August with vigorous Strombolian activity and lava effusion, ended on August Moreover, such a contemporaneous activity at both NSEC and NEC lends credit to the existence of a shallow link between the two craters.
Taking advantage from the availability of an extensive dataset of geochemical, seismic and geodetic data we have here analyzed the volcanic activity characterizing this eruptive event. This integrated, multidisciplinary study is aimed at improving the knowledge of the deeper and shallower portions of the magmatic feeding system along with the magma transfer mechanisms toward the surface.
Background: The language barrier is a significant obstacle for nurses who are not native English speakers to obtain information from international journals. Freely accessible online machine translation MT offers a possible solution to this problem. Aim: To explore how Japanese nursing professionals use online MT and perceive its usability in reading English articles and to discuss what should be considered for better utilisation of online MT lessening the language barrier. Method: In total, randomly selected assistants and research associates at nursing colleges across Japan answered a questionnaire examining the current use of online MT and perceived usability among Japanese nurses, along with the number of articles read in English and the perceived language barrier.
Results: Of the participants, More than half of them felt it was usable. The language barrier was strongly felt, and academic degrees and English proficiency level were associated factors. The perceived language barrier was related to the frequency of online MT use. No associated factor was found for the perceived usability of online MT.
Conclusion: Language proficiency is an important factor for optimum utilisation of MT. A need for education in the English language, reading scientific papers, and online MT training was indicated. Cooperation with developers and providers of MT for the improvement of their systems is required. Lipid signalling couples translational surveillance to systemic detoxification in Caenorhabditis elegans.
Govindan, J. Translation in eukaryotes is surveilled to detect toxins and virulence factors and coupled to the induction of defense pathways. An RNAi screen revealed gene inactivations that act at multiple steps in lipid biosynthetic and kinase pathways that act upstream of MAP kinase to mediate the systemic communication of translation -defects to induce detoxification genes.
Mammalian bile acids can rescue the defect in detoxification gene induction caused by C. Extracts prepared from C. These eukaryotic antibacterial countermeasures are not ignored by bacteria: particular bacterial species suppress normal C. Emergency management of the Mt. Between October 31st and November 2nd the whole Veneto region north-eastern Italy was hit by heavy and persistent rainfall, which diffusely triggered floods and slope failures.
In this framework on November 4th a detrital mass, approximately Rotolon landslide cover located in the Vicentine Pre-Alps, upper Agno River Valley , channelizing within the Rotolon Creek riverbed and evolving into a highly mobile debris flow. The latter phenomena, characterized by a 3 km travel distance, damaged many hydraulic works, putting at high risk bridges and local roads located along the creek banks, together with the population of both the town of Recoaro Terme and the villages of Maltaure, Turcati and Parlati.
Starting from the beginning of the emergency phase, the Civil Protection system was activated, involving the National Civil Protection Department, Veneto Region and local administrations personnel and technicians, as well as research centers.
On December 8th a local scale monitoring system , based on a ground based interferometric radar GB-InSAR , was implemented in order to evaluate the slope deformation pattern evolution in correspondence of the debris flow detachment sector, with the final aim of assessing the landslide residual risk and manage the emergency phase.
Accurate geomorphological field surveys were also carried out, in order to study the landslide morphological features as to improve the radar data interpretation. The radar system acquired in continuous GB-InSAR data, such as displacement maps and time series of 10 selected monitoring points, which were uploaded via LAN network on a dedicated Web-based interface, shared with the technical stakeholders and decision makers involved in the emergency management and allowing for a near real time data routine visualization.
A preliminary 6 DOF attitude and translation control system design for Starprobe. The extreme thermal environment near perihelion and the high-accuracy gravitational science experiments impose unique design requirements on various subsystems of Starprobe. This paper examines some of these requirements and their impact on the preliminary design of a six-degree-of-freedom attitude and translational control system.
The few studies that deal with machine translation MT as a language learning tool focus on its use by advanced learners, never by beginners. Yet, freely available MT engines i. Google Translate and MT -related web initiatives i. Method and system for dual resolution translation stage. A dual resolution translation stage includes a stage assembly operable to receive an optical element and a low resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the stage assembly.
The dual resolution stage also includes an adjustable pivot block mechanically coupled to the stage assembly. The adjustable pivot block includes a pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage further includes a lever arm mechanically coupled to the adjustable pivot block. The lever arm is operable to pivot about the pivot shaft. The dual resolution stage additionally includes a high resolution adjustment device mechanically coupled to the lever arm and the stage assembly.
Under the context of globalization, communications between countries and cultures are becoming increasingly frequent, which make it imperative to use some techniques to help translate. This paper is to explore the influence of computer-aided translation on translators , which is derived from the field of the computer-aided translation CAT and machine translation MT. Followed by an introduction to the development of machine and computer-aided translation , it then depicts the technologies practicable to translators , which are trying to analyze the demand of designing the computer-aided translation so far in translation practice, and optimize the designation of computer-aided translation techniques, and analyze its operability in translation.
Finally, this thesis probes into the impact of these new technologies on translators in hope that more translators and translation researchers can learn to use such tools to improve their productivity.
Grid- translation beam deflection systems for 5-cm and cm diameter Kaufman thrusters. A 5-cm grid translation mechanism has been developed capable of deg beam deflection. A hour endurance test was run at a preset deg deflection angle, and an extrapolated lifetime of better than 10, hours was obtained.
Response time data for grid translation are presented. Preliminary results for a cm diameter system are given, and results of a theoretical analysis of a dished grid system are discussed. A 5-cm grid translation mechanism has been developed capable of 10 deg beam deflection. A hour endurance test was run at a preset 10 deg deflection angle and an extrapolated lifetime of better than 10, hours obtained.
Preliminary results for a cm diameter system are given and results of a theoretical analysis of a dished grid system are discussed. Parl, Angelika; Mitchell, Sabrina L. The selection behind the conservation of the mitochondrial pathway is not completely understood, given the presence of the cytosolic FAS pathway.
Further investigation into the physiological relevance of this communication will be necessary to better understand some of the phenotypic consequences of deficits in this pathway observed in animal models and human disease. A translational velocity command system for VTOL low speed flight.
A translational velocity flight controller, suitable for very low speed maneuvering, is described and its application to a large class of VTOL aircraft from jet lift to propeller driven types is analyzed. Estimates for the more critical lateral axis lead to the conclusion that the controller would provide a jet lift high disk loading VTOL aircraft with satisfactory "hands off" station keeping in operational conditions more stringent than any specified in current or projected requirements.
It also seems likely that ducted fan or propeller driven low disk loading VTOL aircraft would have acceptable hovering handling qualities even in high turbulence, although in these conditions pilot intervention to maintain satisfactory station keeping would probably be required for landing in restricted areas.
The purpose of this study is to introduce a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon Forward Area Language Converter.
The FALCon works by converting documents into digital images via scanner, and then converting those images to electronic text by…. This study introduces a new method of evaluating human comprehension in the context of machine translation using a language translation program known as the FALCon Forward Area Language Converter. Results of this study…. Translational science and the hidden research system in universities and academic hospitals: a case study. Innovation systems IS and science policy scholarship predominantly focus on linkages between universities and industry, and the commercial translation of academic discoveries.
Overlooked in such analyses are important connections between universities and academic hospitals, and the non-commercial aspects of translational science. The two types of institutions tend to be collapsed into a single entity-'the university'-and relational flows are lost. Yet the distinctions and flows between the two are crucial elements of translational science and the biomedical innovation system.
This paper explores what has been called the 'hidden research system ' that connects hospitals, universities, and their resources, with the clinical and scientific actors who make the linkages possible. Then, using a novel conceptual model of translational science, we examine the individual interactions and dynamics involved in a particular example of the biomedical innovation system at work: the diagnosis of IRAK-4 deficiency, a rare immunological disorder, and the translational flows that result.
Contra to conventional IS analyses, we are able to point to the strong role of public-sector institutions, and the weak role of the private-sector, in the translational processes described here. Our research was conducted within a Canadian network of scientists and clinician-scientists studying the pathogenomics of immunological disorders and innate immunity. The paroxysmal eruptions at Mt. Etna volcano: Insights on the vertically zoned plumbing system. The activity of Mt. Etna volcano from January to April was characterized by 24 paroxysmal, short-duration from a few to several hours eruptions at the New South-East summit crater.
The paroxysmal activity thus represents an important opportunity to better understand the effects of different magmatic parameters i. To this aim the petrographic and geochemical features of lava and scoria clasts from 10 paroxysmal events have been investigated. Olivine-, clinopyroxene-, and plagioclase-melt equilibria and thermobarometric calculations were performed in order to estimate the crystallization conditions of magmas. These calculations reveal that the erupted products contain different phenocryst populations in equilibrium with a spectrum of primitive to more evolved magma compositions.
Shasta is the largest stratovolcano in the Cascade Arc, surpassed in volume only by the large rear-arc Medicine Lake and Newberry composite volcanoes. This shift of magmatic focus from within the arc axis as defined by 6 Ma and younger calc-alkaline centers to the arc front is poorly understood, but the current center's location appears structurally controlled.
Most identifiable volcanic vents on Mt. Shasta lie within 1 km of a N-S line through the active summit cone. The vast majority of eruptions have issued from central vents Sargents Ridge, ka; Misery Hill, ka; and Hotlum, 12 km from Mt.
We introduce in this work a Statistical Machine Translation SMT system which fully integrates NNLMs in the decoding stage, breaking the traditional approach based on [Formula: see text]-best list rescoring. The neural net models both language models LMs and translation models are fully coupled in the decoding stage, allowing to more strongly influence the translation quality.
Computational issues were solved by using a novel idea based on memorization and smoothing of the softmax constants to avoid their computation, which introduces a trade-off between LM quality and computational cost. These ideas were studied in a machine translation task with different combinations of neural networks used both as translation models and as target LMs, comparing phrase-based and [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems , showing that the integrated approach seems more promising for [Formula: see text]-gram-based systems , even with nonfull-quality NNLMs.
Advocates of systems thinking approaches argue that accident prevention strategies should focus on reforming the system rather than on fixing the "broken components. This article describes and evaluates a series of systems thinking prevention strategies that were designed in response to the analysis of multiple incidents. The study was undertaken in the led outdoor activity LOA sector in Australia, which delivers supervised or instructed outdoor activities such as canyoning, sea kayaking, rock climbing and camping.
The design process involved workshops with practitioners, and focussed on incident data analyzed using Rasmussen's AcciMap technique. A series of reflection points based on the systemic causes of accidents was used to guide the design process, and the AcciMap technique was used to represent the prevention strategies and the relationships between them, leading to the creation of PreventiMaps.
An evaluation of the PreventiMaps revealed that all of them incorporated the core principles of the systems thinking approach and many proposed prevention strategies for improving vertical integration across the LOA system. However, the majority failed to address the migration of work practices and the erosion of risk controls. Overall, the findings suggest that the design process was partially successful in helping practitioners to translate incident data into prevention strategies that addressed the systemic causes of accidents; refinement of the design process is required to focus practitioners more on designing monitoring and feedback mechanisms to support decisions at the higher levels of the system.
A translator writing system for microcomputer high-level languages and assemblers. In order to implement high level languages whenever possible, a translator writing system of advanced design was developed. It is intended for routine production use by many programmers working on different projects. As well as a fairly conventional parser generator, it includes a system for the rapid generation of table driven code generators.
The parser generator was developed from a prototype version. The translator writing system includes various tools for the management of the source text of a compiler under construction. In addition, it supplies various default source code sections so that its output is always compilable and executable. The system thereby encourages iterative enhancement as a development methodology by ensuring an executable program from the earliest stages of a compiler development project.
Geophysical and geochemical methods applied to investigate fissure-related hydrothermal systems on the summit area of Mt. Etna volcano Italy. A multidisciplinary approach integrating self-potential, soil temperature, heat flux, CO2 efflux and gravity gradiometry signals was used to investigate a relatively small fissure-related hydrothermal system near the summit of Mt.
Measurements were performed through two different surveys carried out at the beginning and at the end of July , right after the end of the long-lived flank eruption and in coincidence with an increase in diffuse flank degassing related to a reactivation of the volcano, leading to the opening of a new summit vent NSEC. The main goal was to use a multidisciplinary approach to the detection of hidden fractures in an area of evident near-surface hydrothermal activity.
Despite the different methodologies used and the different geometry of the sampling grid between the surveys, all parameters concurred in confirming that the study area is crossed by faults related with the main fracture systems of the south flank of the volcano, where a continuous hydrothermal circulation is established.
Results also highlighted that hydrothermal activity in this area changed both in space and in time. These changes were a clear response to variations in the magmatic system , notably to migration of magma at various depth within the main feeder system of the volcano. The results suggest that this specific area, initially chosen as the optimal test-site for the proposed approach, can be useful in order to get information on the potential reactivation of the summit craters of Mt.
Linnaeus' restless system : translation as textual engineering in eighteenth-century botany. In this essay, translations of Linnaeus' Systema naturae into various European languages will be placed into the context of successively expanded editions of Linnaeus' writings. The ambition and intention of most translators was not only to make the Systema naturae accessible for practical botanical use by a wider readership, but also to supplement and correct it, and thus to shape it.
By recruiting more users, translations made a significant contribution to keeping the Systema up to date and thus maintaining its practical value for decades. The need to incorporate countless additions and corrections into an existing text, to document their provenance, to identify inconsistencies, and to refer to relevant observations, descriptions, and illustrations in the botanical literature all helped to develop and refine techniques of textual montage.
This form of textual engineering, becoming increasingly complex with each translation cycle, shaped the external appearance of new editions of the Systema, and reflected the modular architecture of a botanical system designed for expansion.
Volcanic geothermal system in the Main Ethiopian Rift: insights from 3D MT finite-element inversion and other exploration methods. In search for geothermal resources, especially in exploration for high-enthalpy systems found in regions with active volcanism, the magnetotelluric MT method has proven to be an efficient tool. Electrical conductivity of the subsurface, imaged by MT , is used for detecting layers of electrically highly conductive clays which form around the surrounding strata of hot circulating fluids and for delineating magmatic heat sources such as zones with partial melting.
We present a case study using a novel 3-D inverse solver, based on adaptive local mesh refinement techniques, applied to decoupled forward and inverse mesh parameterizations. The flexible meshing allows accurate representation of surface topography, while keeping computational costs at a reasonable level. The MT data set we analyze was measured at sites, covering an area of 18 by 11 km at a geothermal prospect in the Main Ethiopian Rift. For inverse modelling, we tested a series of different settings to ensure that the recovered structures are supported by the data.
Specifically, we tested different starting models, regularization functionals, sets of transfer functions, with and without inclusion of topography. Several robust subsurface structures were revealed. These are prominent features of a high-enthalpy geothermal system : A highly conductive shallow clay cap occurs in an area with high fumarolic activity, and is underlain by a more resistive zone, which is commonly interpreted as a propylitic reservoir and is the main geothermal target for drilling.
An interesting discovery is the existence of a channel-like conductor connecting the geothermal field at the surface with an off-rift conductive zone, whose existence was proposed earlier as being related to an off-rift volcanic belt along the western shoulder of the Main Ethiopian Rift. The electrical conductivity model is interpreted together with results from other geoscientific studies and outcomes from satellite remote sensing techniques.
Discrepancies between the model and balance coordinate systems lead to biases in the aerodynamic measurements during wind-tunnel testing. The reference coordinate system relative to the calibration coordinate system at which the forces and moments are resolved is crucial to the overall accuracy of force measurements. This paper discusses sources of discrepancies and estimates of coordinate system rotation and translation due to machining and assembly differences.
A methodology for numerically estimating the coordinate system biases will be discussed and developed. Two case studies are presented using this methodology to estimate the model alignment. Examples span from angle measurement system shifts on the calibration system to discrepancies in actual wind-tunnel data. The results from these case-studies will help aerodynamic researchers and force balance engineers to better the understand and identify potential differences in calibration systems due to coordinate system rotation and translation.
Translation system engineering in Escherichia coli enhances non-canonical amino acid incorporation into proteins. The ability to site-specifically incorporate non-canonical amino acids ncAAs into proteins has made possible the study of protein structure and function in fundamentally new ways, as well as the bio synthesis of unnatural polymers.
However, the task of site-specifically incorporating multiple ncAAs into proteins with high purity and yield continues to present a challenge. At the heart of this challenge lies the lower efficiency of engineered orthogonal translation system components compared to their natural counterparts e. Here, we show that evolving and tuning expression levels of multiple components of an engineered translation system together as a whole enhances ncAA incorporation efficiency.
Specifically, we increase protein yield when incorporating multiple p-azido-phenylalanine pAzF residues into proteins by i evolving the Methanocaldococcus jannaschii p-azido-phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase anti-codon binding domain, ii evolving the elongation factor Tu amino acid-binding pocket, and iii tuning the expression of evolved translation machinery components in a single vector. Use of the evolved translation machinery in a genomically recoded organism lacking release factor one enabled enhanced multi-site ncAA incorporation into proteins.
We anticipate that our approach to orthogonal translation system development will accelerate and expand our ability to site-specifically incorporate multiple ncAAs into proteins and biopolymers, advancing new horizons for synthetic and chemical biotechnology. The M w 6. Kinabalu earthquake: an infrequent fault rupture within the Crocker fault system of East Malaysia.
Kinabalu earthquake of was a complete and deadly surprise, because it occurred well away from the nearest plate boundary in a region of very low historical seismicity. Our seismological, space geodetic, geomorphological, and field investigations show that the earthquake resulted from rupture of a northwest-dipping normal fault that did not reach the surface.
Its unilateral rupture was almost directly beneath m-high Mt. Kinabalu and triggered widespread slope failures on steep mountainous slopes, which included rockfalls that killed 18 hikers. Our seismological and morphotectonic analyses suggest that the rupture occurred on a normal fault that splays upwards off of the previously identified normal Marakau fault.
Our mapping of tectonic landforms reveals that these faults are part of a km-long system of normal faults that traverse the eastern side of the Crocker Range, parallel to Sabah's northwestern coastline. Although the tectonic reason for this active normal fault system remains unclear, the lengths of the longest fault segments suggest that they are capable of generating magnitude 7 earthquakes.
Such large earthquakes must occur very rarely, though, given the hitherto undetectable geodetic rates of active tectonic deformation across the region. Objectives of the experiment were to determine the influence of system bandwidth and phase delay on flying qualities for translational rate command and vertical velocity command systems. Assessments were made for precision hover control and for landings aboard an LPH type amphibious assault ship in the presence of winds and rough seas. Results obtained define the boundaries between satisfactory and adequate flying qualities for these design features for longitudinal and lateral translational rate command and for vertical velocity command.
Converting the findings from addictions studies into information actionable by non-research treatment programs is important to improving program outcomes. This paper describes the translation of the findings of studies on Patient-Services matching, prediction of patient response to treatment Expected Treatment Response and prediction of dropout to provide evidence-based decision support in routine treatment. The findings of the studies and their application to the development of an outcomes management system are described.
Implementation issues in a network of addictions treatment programs are discussed. The work illustrates how outcomes management systems can play an important role in translating research into practice. Few governments or businesses function without the aid of computer systems. JTEC panel report on machine translation in Japan. The goal of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the art of machine translation MT in Japan and to provide a comparison between Japanese and Western technology in this area.
The term 'machine translation ' as used here, includes both the science and technology required for automating the translation of text from one human language to another. Machine translation is viewed in Japan as an important strategic technology that is expected to play a key role in Japan's increasing participation in the world economy.
MT is seen in Japan as important both for assimilating information into Japanese as well as for disseminating Japanese information throughout the world. Most of the MT systems now available in Japan are transfer-based systems. The majority of them exploit a case-frame representation of the source text as the basis of the transfer process. There is a gradual movement toward the use of deeper semantic representations, and some groups are beginning to look at interlingua-based systems.
A translational platform for prototyping closed-loop neuromodulation systems. While modulating neural activity through stimulation is an effective treatment for neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease and essential tremor, an opportunity for improving neuromodulation therapy remains in automatically adjusting therapy to continuously optimize patient outcomes.
Practical issues associated with achieving this include the paucity of human data related to disease states, poorly validated estimators of patient state, and unknown dynamic mappings of optimal stimulation parameters based on estimated states.
To overcome these challenges, we present an investigational platform including: an implanted sensing and stimulation device to collect data and run automated closed-loop algorithms; an external tool to prototype classifier and control-policy algorithms; and real-time telemetry to update the implanted device firmware and monitor its state.
The prototyping system was demonstrated in a chronic large animal model studying hippocampal dynamics. We used the platform to find biomarkers of the observed states and transfer functions of different stimulation amplitudes. Data showed that moderate levels of stimulation suppress hippocampal beta activity, while high levels of stimulation produce seizure-like after-discharge activity. The biomarker and transfer function observations were mapped into classifier and control-policy algorithms, which were downloaded to the implanted device to continuously titrate stimulation amplitude for the desired network effect.
The platform is designed to be a flexible prototyping tool and could be used to develop improved mechanistic models and automated closed-loop systems for a variety of neurological disorders. Helens Memories. Provides a personal account of one science teacher's participation in a teacher workshop in which teachers learned about volcanic development, types of eruption, geomorphology, plate tectonics, volcano monitoring, and hazards created by volcanoes by examining Mt.
Provides a graphic identifying volcanoes active since Italy: Mt. Eruptions are related to a complex tectonic situation, July 22, - Eruption of the volcano in true-color and stereo. Directing visual attention to spatial locations or to non-spatial stimulus features can strongly modulate responses of individual cortical sensory neurons. Effects of attention typically vary in magnitude, not only between visual cortical areas but also between individual neurons from the same area.
Here, we investigate whether the size of attentional effects depends on the match between the tuning properties of the recorded neuron and the perceptual task at hand. We recorded extracellular responses from individual direction-selective neurons in the middle temporal area MT of rhesus monkeys trained to attend either to the color or the motion signal of a moving stimulus.
We found that effects of spatial and feature-based attention in MT , which are typically observed in tasks allocating attention to motion, were very similar even when attention was directed to the color of the stimulus.
We conclude that attentional modulation can occur in extrastriate cortex, even under conditions without a match between the tuning properties of the recorded neuron and the perceptual task at hand. Our data are consistent with theories of object-based attention describing a transfer of attention from relevant to irrelevant features, within the attended object and across the visual field.
These results argue for a unified attentional system that modulates responses to a stimulus across cortical areas, even if a given area is specialized for processing task-irrelevant aspects of that stimulus. GATE is Once again, the data size was varied and eighty identical requests were. How criminal system racial disparities may translate into health disparities. Disadvantaged racial and ethnic minorities in the U. This paper briefly reviews the extent of over-representation attributable primarily to drug offenses and an earlier conceptual framework introduced by Iguchi and colleagues showing how the use of incarceration as a key drug control tool has disproportionately affected the health and well being of racial and ethnic minority communities.
Etna Eruption. Etna, a volcano on the island of Sicily, erupted on October 26, These data also demonstrate that AIRS can be used to obtain the total mass of SO2 injected into the atmosphere during a volcanic event, information that may help us to better understand these dangerous natural occurrences in the future. This image was made from a sensor on the AIRS instrument that is sensitive to the visible and near-infrared portions of the spectrum. The view is of Europe and the central Mediterranean with Italy in the center.
Figure 1 is a closer view of Sicily and shows a long, brownish smoke plume extending across the Mediterranean to Africa. This is consistent with the enhanced feature in the difference image in Figure 2 and helps validate the information inferred from that image.
Figure 2 clearly shows the SO2 plume. This image was created by comparing data taken at two different frequencies, or channels, and creating one image that highlights the differences between these two channels. Both channels are sensitive to water vapor, but one of the channels is also sensitive to SO2.
By subtracting out the common water vapor signal in both channels, the SO2 feature remains and shows up as an enhancement in the difference image. In vitro evaluation of translating and rotating plates using a robot testing system under follower load. However, previous studies about rigid and dynamic plates have not examined the influence of simulated muscle loading. The objective of this study was to compare rigid, translating , and rotating plates for single-level corpectomy procedures using a robot testing system with follower load.
In-vitro biomechanical test. Specimens were randomized into a rigid plate group, a translating plate group and a rotating plate group and then tested in flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation to a pure moment target of 2. Range of motion, load sharing, and adjacent level effects were analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA.
No significant differences were observed between the translating plate and the rigid plate on load sharing at neutral position and C ROM, but the translating plate was able to maintain load through the graft at a desired level during flexion.
The rotating plate shared less load than rigid and translating plates in the neutral position, but cannot maintain the graft load during flexion. This study demonstrated that, in the presence of simulated muscle loading follower load , the translating plate demonstrated superior performance for load sharing compared to the rigid and rotating plates.
Multiparametric approach to unravel the mechanism of Strombolian activity at a multivent system : Mt. Etna case study. EF produced both Strombolian explosions and lava effusion. Thanks to the multiparametric experiment planned in the framework of MEDSUV project, we had the chance to acquire geophysical and volcanological data, in order to investigate the ongoing volcanic activity at EF.
Temporary instruments 2 broadband seismometers, 2 microphones, 3-microphone arrays, a high-speed video camera and a thermal-camera were deployed near the active vents during July and were integrated with the data recorded by the permanent networks. Several kinds of studies are currently in progress, such as: frequency analysis by Fourier Transform and Short Time Fourier Transform to evaluate the spectral content of both seismic and acoustic signals; partitioning of seismic and acoustic energies, whose time variations could reflect changes in the volcanic dynamics; investigation on the intertimes between explosions to investigate their recurrence behaviour; classification of the waveforms of infrasound events.
Furthermore, joint analysis of video signals and seismic-acoustic wavefields outlined relationships between pyroclasts ejection velocity, total erupted mass, peak explosion pressure, and air-ground motion coupling. This multiparametric approach allowed distinguishing and characterizing individually the behavior of the two vents active along the eruptive fissure via their thermal, visible and infrasonic signatures and shed light in the eruptive dynamics.
Fnal Technical Report. Additional rules were incorporated into the existing grammar for Chinese analysis and interlingual transfer, with emphasis on the latter. Approximately 16, new entries were added…. As part of the development of a completely sub-symbolic machine translation system , a method for automatically identifying German compounds was developed. Given a parallel bilingual corpus, German compounds are identified along with their English word groupings by statistical processing alone.
The underlying principles and the design process are…. Cyclic behaviour on a range of timescales is a well-documented feature of many dome-forming volcanoes. Within the last twenty years both systems underwent extended dome-forming episodes accompanied by large Vulcanian explosions or dome collapses. This study uses a suite of quantitative and analytical techniques which can highlight differences or similarities in volcano seismic behaviour, and compare the behaviour to changes in activity during the eruptive episodes.
Seismic events were automatically detected and characterized on a single short-period seismometer station located 1. A total of individual events were identified from continuous recording of seismic data from 22 October to 28 February average An equivalent count will be produced from seismometer recordings over the later stages of the eruption at MT Unzen. The event count time-series from Mt St Helens is then analysed using Multi-taper Method and the Short-Term Fourier Transform to explore temporal variations in activity.
I have also had experience in business translation for international companies. One of my proudest professional Bulgarian , computers, electronics, mechanical, electrical enginering, Certified Translator Dear Sirs, Please find enclosed my CV.
Translation rates: 0. Main activities and responsibilities: Translation from Bulgarian into English and vice versa of various texts for a detailed list, please see Physics, Mathemat Bulgarian Other languages French English Spanish Specific domains of translation Sociopolitical; law, economics, politics, state Facilitate communication and provide language service to Translation Birth Certificate Languages we translate from: English , German, French.
Languages supported as target: Russian, Are you fluent in English and another language with good communication skills? Are you Ability to edit and review other translation s. Sound ability to translate legal and company documents. Highly specialized in Alexander Stamboliiski 55, Cultured, experienced and capable of translating Bulgarian and English , fashion design, interior design, and offering artistic Profile Young, hip, artistic Bulgarian living in Also specializes in large orders as books.
If you are a translation agency, or a localization or publishing company, then you may Bulgarian ,medical Affairs of the Republic of Bulgaria. I translate from English into Bulgarian and from Bulgarian into English language. I offer the As a native speaker I am able to offer German and English translation s myself, whereas other languages are covered by At the moment I am able to offer Bulgarian , Spanish, S Simultaneous, Consecutive I am sworn translator with the Bulgarian Foreign Ministry.
From to I have lived and worked in Simultaneous, Consecutive translation s, documents, legal, judicial, financial, technical, fiction, Along with this we can manage with the I've done some translation work for I started in the spring of , Bulgarian , translation , computers, technology, software, localization, Bachelor of Laws and B.
Translator full time Local Concept www. Source languages: English and German. Target language: Bulgarian I started my language I am a well educated Translation Competencies 5 years expertise in translation s from Bulgarian Expertise and specialization Russian translation , Turkish translation , Polish translation , Bulgarian translation , Ukrainian translation , Norwegian translation , Attestation of Documents.
English fluent Language 2 3. German Technical Translation Graduate Facts and numbers: 7 years on the market 28 languages for translation customers worldwide 2, projects completed Translated During his active years, he Your search in the Directory returned more than results, however only results are displayed above. Please select medium or large number of results in the search box or refine your search.
You can also go to the Advanced Search for Freelancers. Our standard General Text, Free Automatic English to Serbian Swan Studio provides services for different types of They refer to the use of computer programmes, fonts, types Translation English to Serbian Swan Studio provides services for JSV Translation and Interpreting.
JSV Translation and Interpreting Uzbekistani, Vietnamese and more. Bulgarian , Greek, Polish, Swedish and Russian language. Our translation tea If you are interested in joining our translation team as a freelance translator, please send us your CV via We provide translation services in Greek and all languages of the world. Norwegian, Pash We offer you our services of professional translation. We work with following languages: Azerbaijani, Afrikaans, Translators seeking for translation Join our professional team for mutually beneficial Depending on your European languages such We are a professional and qualified Berker Translation and Trading Co.
Translation and Trading Co. Ltd is one of the oldest and most reputable Greg Translation Agency. Translation Agency Greg Translation Agency Greg Translation They have specialized in the various fields of written and oral translation s and they are selected very carefully and teams are formed Call or email today! We only translate texts into our native languages English and German , this ensures high quality translation s for our We are specialists for the translation of mechanical and electrical engineering We work in a team of in-house translators: Russian- Bulgarian , English - Bulgarian , Russian- English and vice versa, and freelance Our focus is localization of English texts into Bulgarian in a wide range of subject areas.
We have a Translation Agency EVB Euro Translation Translation Agency only works with carefully selected translators. Romance languages: French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and Romanian. Slavic languages: Bulgarian , Pol Euro Translation Agency translates from Dutch to the Apart from English -into-Greek which is our main specialization, we can handle Other services that we provide We offer courses in various languages, though primarily English , for general and specific professional purposes.
We also offer The company offers a full range of language We offer translation services for a wide variety We can also offer you the service of guide-interpreters - di Business Link Consulting Services Ltd. We specialize in translation s and interpreting from English into Polish language as well as in translation from and into Translation from Lexiword Translation s. Translation s Lexiword Translation s Want to spread Want to spread your wings wider? Our heavy investment in cutting-edge translation and localisation technologies increases Lexiword is a We set the bar Bay Translation s, LLC Tampa Bay Translation s Dodolingo Translation Agency.
Dodolingo Translation Agency We are ready at any given time to offer you translation Our translation services cover English , German, French and Bulgarian. We offer translation including web Alpha Translation s Ltd. Translation s Ltd. Alpha Translation s We take pride in our work and we Translation and localisation of all your documents : French, Spanish, The budget for this project is for 0,02 word. You may apply at the Please check below. We have 26 words to Translation EN-BG Orden Top is looking for promising and creative people for the position of an English - Bulgarian translator.
Together with us you are waiting for a Our company is currently looking for freelance translators from English to Bulgarian in the legal field. Requirements: - be a native New confirmed project! Our company is currently English to Currently, we are expanding our Thanks, I look forward to hearing We handle document translation s The budget for this project is for 0, word. Translators Czech and Bulgarian Translation Solutions Limited requires freelance translators Czech and Bulgarian into English UK in the intellectual property and technical fields for an English to Bulgarian Translator and Proofreader.
English to Bulgarian Translator and Proofreader English to Bulgarian Your task as translator will be to provide translation s which are accurate, linguistically correct, consistent with English Bulgarian Translation. English Bulgarian Translation Dears, We Native language: Bulgarian 2. Native language: Polish 2. Translation of Bulgarian Documents. Translation of Bulgarian Documents Please reply with best rate. No agencies please. Translation of several documents from Bulgarian into English.
Translators will need to do a word test translation. The project will begin with the translators who pass the Bulgarian to English. Bulgarian to English All We are looking for translator who can translate pharmaceutical labels and cartons from Bulgarian to English language. It is an urgent project.
Interested translators The budget for this project is 0, Wanted English English to Greek, Bosnian,Romanian, Bulgarain Wanted English to Greek, Translator should have minimum 1 year experience in technical domain translation - Target native language speakers Wanted English to English to Bulgarian Translation Project.
English to Bulgarian Translation Project I have a 2, word English to Bulgarian translation project. You must have experience a Other Languages to English can also Subject: General Delivery Bulgarian - English Translation. Bulgarian - English Translation Bulgarian - English It's a long-term project. A big project on translation of websites topics: dating, Resource Needed Christian Translation Project - English - Bulgarian.
Translation Project - English - Bulgarian Christian Translation Project - English - Bulgarian You must have a background in Christian You must have a background in Christian translation , and your native language must be Bulgarian. If you are We have English to Bulgarian , Greek, turkish, swedish. English to Bulgarian , Greek, turkish, swedish English to Bulgarian , We are looking Please find additional information Bulgarian - English.
Translators applying must TAR 48 hours: minutes Bulgarian audio needs to be translated to English text. TAR 48 hours: minutes Bulgarian audio needs to be The English parts need to be transcribed and the However, the text should reflect as much as possible what is Needed: English to Bulgarian translation project General Domain Please contact us with your CV and rate for per Please write your language group and Bulgarian to English translator needed US based agency.
Translation s, a US based translation agency, is looking for a reliable Bulgarian to English translator to translate a technical document. Please apply at Work includes routine translation and interpretation The budget for this project is 0,02 usd per word. European Union tender, for translation of scientific texts.
Union tender, for translation of scientific texts European Union tender, for translation Hello: We need a short Bulgarian transcription and translation. Bulgarian transcription and translation Bulgarian transcription and Both Bulgarian transcript and English translation will be Bulgarian In-house Technical Translator. Bulgarian In-house Technical Translator Bulgarian In-house Technical We would love to create your translation profile on our vendor portal and contact back when other Bulgarian to English -Certifed or not-.
Bulgarian to English -Certifed or not English to Bulgarian Translation. English to Bulgarian Translation English to bulgarian Translation. Business Ethics e-learning text. Translation from Russian to Bulgarian or from Freelancers- Bulgarian Mohamed, project manager from Pharma-Med for medical translation services, we have a new project to be translated from Bulgarian to English. It is about 16, words. We are currently looking for native Government, NGOs, Legal, etc.
Basic Qualifications - Native speaker of We are looking for FR translation agency looking to expand its freelancer database. Required languages Bulgarian Chinese Traditional Get registered at our Partner Portal at Bulgarian to English Medical translators for ongoing project. The content is FR translation agency looking for freelancers various languages.
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